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As a reality of social life that cannot be ignored, the press, the "fourth estate"

it is related to the era that is close to us, that is, to its very beginnings

Tribute to the emergence and development of book printing in Europe (Gutenberg's galaxy).

But before the 15th century came a turning point in evolution

As a means of communication we must look back to the past, to prehistoric sources

human communication, then we briefly describe the development of the subject

fascinating culture and civilization, mass communication.

A long time

Communication has always been an essential dimension of human beings

dialogically, in direct relation with peers, but also in relation to overcoming and

with the surrounding world full of signs and marks for archaic man

Symbols, "words" they need to hear, see and understand.

The history of religions speaks of the sanctity of communication as an integral part of it

the way archaic man lives in the world (Mircea Eliade, history of ideas...)

"In the beginning, the most primitive form of mass communication is the sign

to the public a very simple and predictable fact: the moment when

there is no writing. Wood carving, painted stone, broken branch

To primitive man it means the approach of an enemy or the fact that a game has been played

passed here or will be there... Visual signals belong to the same category -

Smoke by day or fire by night - and signals too

acoustic, like the well-known African hum' (Jean-Noël Jeanneney, 1997, 16).

The witness mentions the existence of some structured methods

public entertainment. The need for "top-down" information and vice versa is the need for action

desired as quickly, accurately and completely by those who led

they were obliged, on the one hand, to transmit the measures, the orders, all kinds of documents,

and on the other hand the need to receive "news" about what is happening at the level of these people

driven represent reality. This need as well as "curiosity" in

The very desire to know the news worked before the appearance of the letter and apparently

before the advent of the printing press.

In Babylon and Egypt there was a kind of chronicle that recorded events

as the Jewish historian Joseph Flavius ​​says, "day by day." In the same category

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I also write Jewish "Posters" or Greek "Newspapers". Some of them are

were the main sources for his history books

The people of Israel call the books Derelict from the Old Testament canon

"Daily Actions" in the Hebrew version or "Events of Former Times"

Short on "chronicles", I use sources other than the 4 books of kings

which the author mentions at various points in his work: The Book of Kings

Israel, Book of the Kings of Israel and Judah, Book of the Kings of Judah and Israel, Book

Kings, Acts of the Kings of Israel, Chronicles of King David, Acts of Samuel

the seer, the works of Nathan the prophet, the works of Gad the seer, the prophecy of Ahijah

Shilonites, the visions of Ido the Seer, the works of the prophet Shemaiah, the works of Jesus,

the son of Hanani, The rest of the works of Uzziah written by Isaiah, The vision of Isaiah,

The book of the prophets, Jeremiah's lamentation for Josiah, the remaining verses

unknown (Books, 2001., p. 449).

The Chinese have been since the 2nd century BC. BC, during the Han Dynasty, bulletin

informatively named TI BAO (Fallen), a kind of newsletter that stated:

including imperial decrees or decrees.

Speaking of the Greeks, we recall the surprise of media history researcher Eugene

Dubief stating that "everyone is passionate about public issues" and that

The eternal question was: What else is new?

"Journalism" in ancient Rome

With the Romanians, the "prehistory" of typography takes on new dimensions. For many of the

Researchers in this area require special attention at this time because they accept

"a kind of journalism" in ancient Rome.

Important events of each year were recorded and preserved chronologically on tablets

in the residence of the great pope who made the inscription. At first only accessible

patricians, then plebeians, these paintings were called "Chronicles of the Pope" (but also

Annales maximi, Annales Pontificum κ.λπ.) uzeti su iz spisa Σύγκλητος

including reports on some forum discussions.

It is a much more interesting form that appears during Democracy

it achieved "pace" and "steadiness" under Julius Caesar and would continue to the last

Roman emperors. This is the Acta diurna, which was written by actuaries, scribes

Experts, a phenomenon that Dubief considers a "real germ."

Calendar". Acta diurna or acta urbis from ancient Rome: tablets written on stone

through which the Senate announced certain facts to the citizens. So much for content and a half

These Acta diurna are "transmitted" to the world. They contained information about

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Meetings of the Senate, including portions of minutes, extracts from speeches,

Accounts, Court Events, Military Events, Information on

Performances or ceremonies, actors' performances, lawsuits, bankruptcies, disasters even

what we would today call a "miscellaneous event". After these acta diurna children were created

which were broadcast afterwards; Historians record "even sold" outside Rome.

Seneca records that wealthy Romans kept the slaves they sent

in the city to collect mercury, commodity prices but also rumours.

"News" was used for business speculation and political influence.

Suetonius mentions such documents, but Cicero and Tacitus also refer to them.

An item that will be repeated as an example should also be mentioned

story, mentioned by Jean-Noel Jeannenney, as well as Le Clerc or Dubief.

These acta diurna were subject to government censorship.

Privileged places of news dissemination during antiquity remained for Fr

old market (public square), fairs, forums or temples,

place of worship.

Preach the gospel and use the media.

Christian epistle

Words of Christ the Redeemer before the ascension: Go

teach all nations... (Mt. 28, 20), Go into all the world and preach

gospel to all creation... (Mk 16:15), ... and you will be my witnesses in

Jerusalem and throughout Judea and Samaria and to the ends of the earth (FA 1,

8) was a real testimony to the holy apostles and their disciples

Missionary. Therefore, they endured all trials bravely and ready to sacrifice

missionary journeys, persecutions emanating from or of the Jews

to the Gentiles, preaching the gospel of redemption in Christ "in time and out of time".

all the provinces of the Roman Empire.

Christian communication is perfected and preserved in Eucharistic communion

according to the ancient Christian tradition of brotherly love in which the community stands

the light of the Holy Spirit as the mystical body of Christ in which every man dwells

he is called to cooperate with others for salvation. But to increase efficiency

Through their missionary work, the apostles maintain contact with newly established communities in various regions

regions of the world and using the means of communication of that time


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In this sense, a special place must be given to the study of principles

Church media, Christian letter writing.

The type of letters was well known in the Roman world, both private and private

The world of scholars and philosophers. As a rule, the letters are different

it is even intended for direct communication, of a private nature and letters

as a literary form in which the letter serves only as a support for the elaboration a

subject intended for a wider audience; in short, any type can be written

cast in the shape of a letter.

Paul's letters are occasional writings written under pressure from some

urgent missionary needs, in special circumstances and for clarification

some confusion in matters of religion or morality, discipline

behavior of the church or the individual. (NT Study Guide, p. 103)

The letter (letter) is a public act of personal correspondence, as follows

we see from Epistle Hebrews, Epistle Sobs II, III In and Epistles to Philemon, Prin.

In short, it looks like an ordinary, urgently sent "ticket". letters

congregants - in the sense of the wider readership: 2. Petrova i Judina - addressed

for all Christianity, James, 1 Pt and 1 In - intended for larger Christian communities

as local church, 2 in - local church, 3 in - Christian leader

follows the categorization of the first letter of the same apostle John.

Saint Paul the Apostle never ceases to be his minister, privately and publicly

Christ. "What shall I do, Lord?" (FA 9, 6). — That you will witness him before you.

to all people, for what you have seen and heard. " (FA 22, 15). style

The style of the letters is that of a Christian missionary and leader turned writer

random (p. 107). As for the recipient's attitude, even if

Since this is a private person, let's assume the message sent is an address

all the brothers of the community to which he belongs. So Philemon has a conscience

Also included is the universal value given to the apostle St.

The author himself expresses the intention of reproduction, transmission, to the recipients

sent a message. In this sense, the exchange of letters that is

suggests to the Christians in Colossae and Laodicea recorded in Colossians 4:16: . AND

After reading this letter, ask them to read it aloud

The Church in Laodicea, and you should also read this one in Laodicea.

Saint Paul attributes the role of the encyclical to his personal correspondence. Urinate

while talking. Some parts of his letters give the impression that he was

animated conversation, reproduced without correction from his own notes

stenographer. Anacolut cases [Grammatical errors consisting of pauses

syntactic construction in a sentence caused by a mismatch of logical and grammatical levels


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We do not find a linear style in the Gospels. St. Paul is not a storyteller like St. Paul. Luke,

a thinker like St. John, but a preacher, an apologist, a warrior. "It's style


13. Brethren, I do not want you to know that I have often thought about this

I am coming to you, but until now I have delayed bearing fruit among you,

like other nations. 14. I am also indebted to the Greeks, barbarians and scholars

and uneducated; 15. As for me, I am glad to tell you

The Gospel also to you, all in Rome.

Paul's writings: dictated to a scribe (like Tertius, see Romans 16:22)

21. Timotheus, my partner, Lucius and Jason embrace you and

To Sosipatrus, who is of the same race with me, 22. I embrace thee in the Lord, Terti,

that I wrote the letter. 23. Gaj hugs you, my host and everyone

Church. Erast, the city treasurer, and brother Cvartus embrace you. 24

May the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Amen!

The names of some of the secretaries of St. Paul: Sosthenes, Timothy,

Silvan, and the verb diktat is synonymous with writing.

Typically, Paul's letters agree with the epistolary

of time: The letter begins with a prescription consisting of the sender's name,

that of the recipient and greeting; The text of the letter is determined by the formulas I entered

various types of communication, such as "I'll learn", "as if I wrote you";

At the end there is a closing phrase, something like "Be careful". these elements

of the epistolary kind is well attested in the epistles of St. Paul, but it may be

clearly also in Saint Ignatius. See C. Moreschini, E. Norelli, History

Ancient Greek and Latin Christian Literature, Book I, p.

FA 23, 25-30: Brief des Volkstribunen Claudius Lysias and den Prokonsul Antonius

Felix at Caesarea in Palestine, St. Paul's conflict with the Jews

26. Claudius Lysias, greet the almighty prefect Felix! 27. In this case

When the Jews caught that man and wanted to kill him, I went with the soldiers and took him out.

learns that he is a Romanian (citizen). 28. And I want to know why

Strom, I took him to your Grand Council. 29. And I learned that he is being sued

Subjects of their law, but without any guilt worthy of death or death

chains. 30. And it was announced to me that there would be a fight against this man

On the part of the Jews, I immediately sent him to you and ordered the accused to say so

before you what they have in it. Be healthy!

In FA 29.26 it is easy to spot: preface (sender, addressee, salutation), body

letters, epilogue. In his commentaries on Paul's letters, St. John Muth writes about

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Aur indicates that two key points always appear in the body of a letter:

doctrine of faith, moral teachings. The last greeting from II Cor 13, 13 a

they are already glorified: The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ and his love

May God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you!

Christian epistleography is well represented in the patristic period (fr

Apostles, Cappadocian saints, etc.). Pastoral letters of the archbishop

clergy and believers in their sphere of action, on the occasion of the great Christian holidays (St.

Easter, Nativity) or other special occasions are forms

Communication in full continuity with the epistles of the New Testament canon.

Therefore, we can confirm that the history of Christian media has its roots

letter writing of the first centuries.

Christian communication from the time of Constantine to the fall

of Constantinople (313-1453)

More than 1000 years of flourishing of the Roman Empire

The Christianized one, with Constantinople as its capital, represents the historical era in which

The church will have a particularly important role in public communication, both through

elaborate ceremonies at the imperial court and undertaking the mission

intellectually and culturally in local communities, but also by the zeal of copyists and

Calligraphers from the monastery.

During this time, prelates and scholar-monks not only fulfill the mission

Transmission of the Holy Bible, translation and interpretation of sacred texts, but also

preserving the teachings of the holy fathers, their lives, by copying them into manuscripts

Sacred and formal ordinances for each day of the liturgical year. So,

Public communication is directly related to eternity, to earthly life

This is simply a time of preparation for the kingdom of God.

Byzantine chroniclers describe events from the perspective of eternity and

They have a theological perspective of history inspired by the books of the ancients

Will: The actions of men are judged and represented as always in their own hands


Manuscript leaf and "Occasionals" before Gutenberg

In the centuries of the Middle Ages, we find other forms that herald the appearance of "th".

four forces".

The first phenomenon that all researchers remember is the Oral Chronicle, i.e

These are people whose job it was to wander and inform. They are

what E. Dubief called "des journalist sans journal"; They were called novelists

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Italy or Nouvellistes in France. They went and showed, brought news

Rumors, gossip, employment with prominent personalities of big cities.

They will start working independently, they will organize themselves in circles, they will do it

More and more regular meetings in fixed spaces (large gardens, cafes, etc.) are sufficient.

sharing information that will later be shared with clients – orally – and

public. The idea of ​​collecting data in registers - a kind of diary - was born

Copies of the manuscript were then made for distribution. From here to the office

Copywriting, correspondent networks, and customer acquisition - through public reading

or subscriptions - only one step left.

Thus a handwritten sheet is created, a form as a media

that remain in print, with examples cited

Early 17th century. (They were called Nouvelle a mano - in Italian Relationsi

– in Germany, Nouvelle a la main – in France, Newsletter – in England, etc.).

At first, these were booklets or notebooks with 4, 8 or 12 pages, say.

and of course informative role. They had no regularity and were made accordingly

conditions and requirements. It is believed that their aim was to inform

monarchs and noble families. The cases of Edward III are mentioned in

England from the 14th century, that is, the Electoral Princes of Saxony, from her

Point, with enough effort to obtain such texts.

News and documents are kept in the library of the University of Leipzig

The Vatican Library or the Vienna National Library bear witness to this for a century.

15 and 16 - the presence of some collections of these manuscript leaves with

Information from various places in Europe (Rome, Hamburg, Vienna,

Madrid, Paris, London, Warsaw, Istanbul, etc.) – specific network certification

Correspondence as preserved since the glorious end of the fourteenth century

Fugger Bank in Augsburg.

This "newspaper" will last more than two centuries. Even more so in the century

The sixteenth Journal manuscript will reach an extraordinary threshold of success.

The name is still being debated. From the etymology leading to the ancient word

Hebrew "izgad", according to Furetiere, or according to the Persian etymone - "kazed",

"kagiz", according to Garcin de Tassy, ​​from the Italian "gazz", which he called the girl

cotofana, also means chatty woman, gossip - more often

Explanations. It seems reasonable to refer to a small Venetian silver coin by this name

"gazzetta" with which you could buy Foglietti d'avvisi, i.e. newspapers.

The script.

17th and 18th century dictionaries also retained the newspaper format,

but also the last magazine, which mentions as a clear note: appearance; The paper appeared in

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single days and then as a daily newspaper and magazine "Monthly appearance" and then

as a journal reference. Later, both were preserved, with magazine markings

they proposed its derivatives.

The names of some authors, editors, publishers, distributors have been preserved, such as: Cosimo

Berlotti from Venice, Grazio Renzi from Rome, Lawrence Minol from London, Krasser from

Augsburg, etc.

These handwritten newspapers disseminated economic information (coins, prices, markets,

transport), politics (negotiations, military conflicts), but also various events.

Arches of the same type circulated in the 16th and 17th centuries and have been printed ever since.

In this sense, history preserves the newspapers called prigodels - newspapers in France

– for Germany, Krant – for the Netherlands, Avvisi – for Italy or Newsbooks –

for England, but also titles such as Mercura, Gazeta or Jurnal. I'll keep the sheets too

popular character - Canards -, from canard = rumour, news... circulated

France. "Les libelles", posters and songs are mentioned to the same extent

it engages in religious and political warfare, forms that lie in the background of both

popular and ecclesiastical control.

Handwritten newspapers to which we can add all these souvenir sheets,

it represents a reality that, as we said, spans almost two centuries.

Some of the defining features of the print concept are found in the

The show was proposed at that time. Beyond the need for circulation

information, the "use" of more facts, it is worth remembering what Jean-Noel

Jeanneney saw it as a kind of "recruitment type" through which he influenced himself

"Public Affairs", increasing weight of satirical notes, pamphlet elements.

On the other hand, these plates were easily spread and escaped the "control" of the authorities. in

In this way, we are also talking about another example, the struggle between censorship and freedom

Press, a dramatic relationship that will last for centuries.

In this sense, all historians remember several examples. In 1275 by decree

In England royal law provided for the punishment of those who spread false news. In 1534

Censorship is becoming a reality in France. Between 1569 and 1572 Pope Pius V imposed

Prisoners face severe penalties, including the death penalty

or broader "messages" attacking the Catholic Church. It's called Premium

The victim, the first "witness" of journalism - Nicolo Franco, was killed by hanging

1570 by order of the Pope (Marian Petcu, Moć i kultura, Polirom, 1999).

Citing authors and historians with reference to old papal texts

not to "decipher" Fabliauxa, from Fox Novel to Novel

a rose, as the "leaflet root" of information, to remember

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such memoirs, chronicles, letters in which elements of speech are recognized

They advertised in writing and after the list he called from no

Neither Rabelais, nor Erasmus, nor Ulrich de Hutten, nor Luther, nor Calvin,

"What journalistic idiosyncrasies", we arrive at Dubief's formula, which I still have today

citirajte ih: "These are Journales without a journal", u

But something fundamental had to happen to make printing a reality.

Even if this is "something", a print, a product of the 15th century, indeed

when other elements - paper, ink, diffusion - find their confirmation

In the same century, the printed press made its way "into time" and coexisted with older forms

or with other "transitional forms". They deserve to be distinguished from this last category

almanac, with appearances on fixed dates and annual regularity, hence the name

an Arabic word meaning "next year", a word coined from 1391.

concretized historical stories in Mainz in 1448, simultaneously recording everyday events and

the popular versions I mentioned earlier.

But behind this "coexistence" is hidden the truth that bears witness to it

a long "story" that establishes a moment of authentic genesis in the relationship

Gutenberg Effect (1394. – 1468.).

The art of papermaking, known in China since the Han Dynasty, is still well known

At the beginning of the Christian era it came to Europe around 1100 through the Arabs.

The first paper mill opened in Spain, followed by others in France.

Germany and England. In our country the first known document was written on paper a

Ruler Mirce the Elder's charter for the Tismana monastery (1406).

Assumptions about the prehistory of typography in Romania

No evidence has been found to support the idea of ​​handwritten official gazettes or pamphlets

occasionally on Romanian soil. The history of printing begins in Târgovişte

1508 (Makarius Liturgy), but in the monasteries of Wallachia and

In Moldavia there were important schools for copyists and calligraphers (Tismana, Cozia,

Neamţ, Bistrita, Putna, κ.λπ.).

Young Romanians who traveled to the West also came into contact with the methods

"fashionable" public communication of his time. It is possible that during the invasions

A type of pamphlet may have been used in Ottoman times and some in Transylvania

The manor houses with stronger connections in the west know these ways

Contact. Added to this is the fact that some newspapers circulating in Europe reported the events

Transylvania, Banat or Wallachia allow the confirmation of the idea that nothing

The party in the West was no stranger to us.

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The "Romanian Manual" of 1646 says: "Sometimes they write."

Papers with curses and insults about someone and throw them on the street or in the middle

A festival where there are more people, so people can read...and others can write

Stick paper on the walls or see where people walk by. Even more

he doesn't just talk about simple "letters", but about prose, poems, drawings

and the poems were treated with "wonderful learning" and "dealt with philosophy."

The Library of the Romanian Academy acquired several dozen copies between 1912 and 1913.

copies of occasional newspapers of the period 1594-1601 dealing with

battles of Michael the Brave. During their anti-Ottoman campaign

they printed numerous pamphlets announcing progress and results

Matches - Aviso or Avisi. Circulars from Transylvania: laws, military communities,


It is certain that it played an embryonic role in the Romanian area from the XVI-XVII centuries

Later typography had manuscript chronicles and then book prefaces


About the history of Moldova from the birth of the country... the chronicler

Grigore Ureche (1590-1647), Nicolae Manolescu writes: Wie "Cazania", wie

The "Psalter in verse," "Letopisețu," was read and copied immediately.

His treatment, interjections, as well as Costain's continuation show this

he had an inspired imitation. To be so successful, he had to live up to certain expectations.

Hence the whole mixture of new and old, scientific spirit and the

Religious provision, carefully touching the sources and referring to a

divine signs, mental contamination and priestly ethos. I do not believe

that it can be unequivocally said that Ureche was a humanist or, on the contrary, a humanist

a medieval fatalist. Our first chronicle is in its indivisible whole

a cold observation of the abhorrence and Christian weakness of cultured irony and

folk innocence of style, a classic work of historical prose.

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Research area:

18th century and the first half of the 19th century

Socio-political and cultural-ecclesiastical context The culture and historical Gh. Ghibanescu writes in a great anniversary article:

was published in the daily newspaper "Opinia" from 1929 and was dedicated to the 100 years

An equally justified statement was made by the appearance of the newspaper "Albina românească".

painful. It confirms, based on the study of historical documents, a spiritual exercise in which

It was insurmountable that the Romanian principalities had to endure between 1711 and 1829.

75 years of military occupation. Conquering troops, whether Austrian or Ottoman, and mainly

The Russians have set up permanent camps and bivouacs on our land and the consequences of delay

it is easy to imagine them. These are circumstances to which, unfortunately, others can be added

and others that had the natural course of people's lives, social, economic or cultural development

they always suffer. And intellectual activities suffered even more.

Therefore, it is not surprising that in the period before 1800

Bucharest and Iași, as well as in other centers where printing houses were located, in Neamţ Monastery and Buzău

or Râmnica Vâlcea, relatively few books were printed. Besides, it was beside the point

publication of some magazines, in addition to some popular journals that appeared

over long distances.

Not even in Transylvania or Bukovina, with all the stability guaranteed by the government

The Austrians fared no better either, because imperial censorship did not allow removal

some newspapers in Romanian and printed books - textbooks, religious texts or

The works of the lamps of the Ardeline school - their number was quite small, because they were few

even book connoisseurs.

Distribution of foreign publications in Romanian countries

The beginnings of printing are much earlier in Western than in Eastern Europe, i.e

The explanation is mainly due to the evolution of the type. Newspapers have

was born almost simultaneously in France, England and Holland in the first half of the year

seventeenth century.

The first magazine printed irregularly in Europe is the Nieuwe

Tydinghen (Current News), Antwerp, Holland, May 1605.

The first French newspaper was La Gazette (May 30, 1631), published by Dr.

Téophraste Renaudot, an inventive Protestant energetic man full of imagination. To

The newspaper had 4 pages measuring 23 cm x 15 cm and was printed in several editions:

300-800 copies. The first version of the characters will also appear in France

Literary-scientific: Le Journal des Savants, 1665. The next century would bring the appearance

Magazines with special themes (literature, fashion, theater, etc.).

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In England, the first weekly magazine appeared as early as 1622 and 1655.

The Oxford Gazette, then called The London Gazette, is still published today.

In the south, his first weekly newspaper was in Florence in 1636, in Rome in 1640 and in Madrid in 1640.

1661. In the Imperial Empire, Peter the Great, admirer of the West, will be

He founded his own newspaper in 1703.

In our country newspapers appear a little later than in other countries

more developed Europeans. When are the first attempts to establish a newspaper in the language

However, Romanians were produced in Transylvania only at the end of the 18th century

Since then, newspapers published abroad are distributed in the territory of three Romanian countries

17th century. This fact is confirmed by the works of Dimitri Cantemir,

Constantin Cantacuzino, Radu Popescu containing the information he collected

newspapers published in various European countries and columns on princely relations

Editions, from the second half of the 18th century, re

Subscription to newspapers (N. Iorga, 1922, 9-15).

All this proves the interest paid by the enlightened lords and boyars

opportunities for political awareness and knowledge of literary innovations and

Scientifically through the media.

Evidence of the spread of printing in the Romanian provinces is quite old,

At some point in 1776, the ruler Grigore Ghica gave Vodă various sums

Buying newspapers < 69 lei is spent on newspapers

Braşov from the lordship of Saule Serdar for six months, so that the titles

from Aachen, Cologne, Vienna, Utrecht (2). Archival research is likely to do this

also offers surprises here.

Diaries, almanacs, pamphlets and attempts to print some magazines

in Romanian

Diaries, almanacs and albums printed from scratch -

18th century, as press reports. So,

The first calendar, from 1731, was printed a hundred years before the Kurir

Romanian and Romanian bees (beide ab 1829) betrachtettetten den Moment von

The foundation gives our media the age of two and a half centuries. The

The diary was recorded in 1731 by the church chronicler Erdelj Protopopul

The Tempe work was developed by the master Petcu Şoanul in his own printing house

Scheii Braşovului, in Cyrillic letters and widely distributed in manuscript versions

Romanian and Greek.

Following his example appeared in Bucharest at the beginning of the 19th century and

in other cities, publications with the same title, diaries, were printed in letters for a long time

Cyrillic They reported on the events of the year in question as mentioned

The title of the calendar by years...

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Dozens of calendars were printed both in Romanian countries and in Romania

occupied cities: in Buda, at the Crăiasca University Press

Hungary from Pest. in Vienna (1794, diary compiled by Paul Iorgovici). TO

Černivci (the oldest Romanian calendar from Bukovina, 1814). u Kišinjevu

(in Slavic characters, Bessarabian calendar).

Hungarians published the first newspaper in their native language in Bratislava in 1780 -

Maghyar Hirmondo, in Transylvania the first Hungarian magazine published in Sibiu,

έως το 1790. – Erdely Maghyar HirVivo, scanner and Martinovoj printer

Master of listening (1740 - 1789).

This printer, beneficiary of the privileges of Maria Theresa, was published on

Sibiu and the newspaper Theatrical Wochenblatt, starting on June 1, 1778, which appears to be the year

it was the first magazine published in our country (3).

Efforts to issue publications for Romanians began in 1789 when

Ophthalmologist and professor Ioan Piuariu Molnar from Cluj is asking the authorities

Wallachian newspaper printing license for serf / paper

Romanian for farmers.

Although the governor of Transylvania Gh. Banffy will give him support (was).

colleagues from the Masonic lodge), because he also asked for exemption from certain taxes,

The Court of Vienna will deny him the requested privilege. In 1793 Molnar

founded the Philosophical Society of the Nation along with other intellectuals

Romanian from the Grand Duchy of Transylvania, in whose name he founded a in 1795

Announcement (printed by Petru Bart) of the publication of a newspaper entitled Vestiri

Philosophers and Moralists, which was supposed to appear on Wednesdays and Saturdays. Here is the schedule

scheduled official document:

Leaving this to the printer, we will send other church stories

Now they could not be printed in Romanian.

Second: geography, which includes the division of the country and its inhabitants

priests with their customs and the names of towns and villages

Old and new chronographs are printed.

The third: physics, mathematics and the content of philosophical learning, according to the Enlightenment

For those who want to learn the basics of the sky with all the planets, we will teach them.

Fourth: Where does the biography of the princes of Hungary and Moldavia come from

the beginning of their reign.

Fifth: The history of Romania is far from the oldest true stories

Stories and other trivia of the world to which various are added

useful information such asand others.

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The publication did not come out because the authorities refused to publish it (4).

In 1814, the Transylvanian scholar Alexie Lazaru made a new attempt at Buda

Editing of the Romanian version, which is why it is distributed a

message forwith subscription request - < that's it

The number of subscribers is enough to cover the printing costs here in Crăiasca

Acropolis of Buda, near the printing office>

The first Romanian magazines

In the history of the Romanian press described in the article Romanian journalism in 1855.

Mihail Kogălniceanu talks about the magazine newsletter published in 1817

Teodor Racocea, Romanian translator in Lemberg and for Zaharija's effort

Carcalechi publishes a monthly publication, Biblioteca Romanianasca, which has just been launched

sporadically, in 1821 (M. Popa and V. Taşcu, 2003, pp. 43-44).

Published at Leipzig in 1827 under the editorship of I. M. C. Rosetti.

Valahia, Fama Lipschi magazine, the first Romanian magazine from

copy preserved in Sibiu (V. Vişinescu, 2000, p. 33).

One's name is associated with the first "national" newspapers published in Romanian countries

several important figures of Romanian culture and school: Ion Heliade Rădulescu,

who published the first magazine "Curierul Romanianesc" on April 8, 1829 in Bucharest.

in the local language; Gheorghe Asachi, founder and organizer of the magazine

The Romanian bee appeared in Iași (June 1, 1829) and George Bariția,

that a little later, on March 12, 1838, the Gazeta de Transilvania (V.

Vișinescu, 2000, S. 33).

In the first half of the year, the journalistic style prevailed in the literary Romanian language

11th century the appearance of the newspaper Curierul românesc (April 8, 1829)

in Wallachia, Romanian bee (June 1, 1829) in Moldavia and

"Gazette de Transylvania" (1838). In the announcement before its first issue

Die Zeitung "Curierul Românesc" Ion Heliade Rădulescu describes his Begeisterung und

advantages that the Romanian-speaking guy can have: "We feel it too."

A pleasure to boast in our hands with the Official Gazette of our country and written

even in our language. Now you can see the Romanian tentacle

They shed tears of joy and saw old men and young men in every house.

Women, learned and more common, engaged and socialized with the Gazeta in

He delivered and multiplied his ideas, he has knowledge and kept the number

World Events". A similar message can be found in "before

Speech" from the first edition of the newspaper "Albina romănească", p

Gheorghe Asachi wrote: “The desire of those who longed to create...

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simple means by which our nation can experience improvements

and the progress of the human mind and the course of world events on which everything depends

Man depends on fulfilling the usefulness of newspapers today by publishing these newspapers

It is general and common to the whole class of men. but his politician

Sharpen his sharp and insightful pursuits and deepen his thoughts

and its combinations; Here gather silent writers and philosophers who bring light to the darkness

events and happenings in the world; a brave and fearless warrior

It improves by learning from the luck or mistakes of others

Warrior. A reliable businessman moves on

He ventures his guesses.

There is no scene, there is no age that does not find joy

useful in this finding, worthy and worthy of human reason, or to

Zeitung "''.

In addition to the passion of these words, we must emphasize the interest

manifested by the two giants of civilization in terms of the need for wealth a

Romanians, for the development of the consciousness of the unity of language and nation

Limitation to European values, to the material and spiritual progress of humanity.

The program of the magazine "Curierul Romanianesc" is important in this respect:

1. A collection of the most useful and interesting things from newspapers


2. Notes on the development and improvement of Romanian literature.

3. Notifications about the most useful company articles.

4. Internal and free services of our country.

5. Special sales and auctions and finally many more tips

useful, for example for the cleanliness of cities, for the protection of health,

remove severe scl diseases.

The two newspapers will remain faithful to the announced programs for a long time to come

prime numbers, deal only with information, mostly avoid conflict

the politics.

It wasn't until 1838 that the Romanian courier got his name on the subtitle

"Political, Commercial and Literary Newspapers." Still, a great event

The history from 1848 onwards is not given by direct sources, but by the adoption of articles

from European magazines, fearing a backlash from domestic officials. It's not the same

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The position of the newspaper from Transylvania: "Bulletin for mind, heart and literature"

and "Gazeta de Transilvania" which brings events from

1848 and which are often adopted and broadcast in the newspapers of the country

Romanian and from Moldova.

Two editions "Curierul Românesc" and "Curierul Românesc" are important.

"Romanian bee", in the field of philology, with the aim of consolidating the language

Romanian as the main instrument of national emancipation: "Language is a tool".

through which we show our knowledge and thoughts and therefore how much

The sayings by which he designates his ideas expand and multiply in man

to be... After that we have so many sayings or names in our language

how the professions or sciences were known to us, and how much they will multiply

our knowledge in so many and the language is enriched"

The cultivation of the literary Romanian language becomes the main goal

Publications: "Care for people, for their language culture, care for them".

its national existence".

Along with the same intention of further development and modernization of the language

As literary Romanians, we were interested in expanding our vocabulary

Words necessary for the development of science, culture and technology at the European level

Adaptation to the Romanian dictionary. For this purpose in the columns of his newspaper

All the neologisms are hidden at the bottom of the page: "We don't have a person who

Not to mention praise for the establishment of the newspaper, which entails an endless series

innovations and strange stories, at the same time I hear some naysayers

I carefully read the newspapers and found some foreign words in them... A long time ago the editors,

Particular attention is paid to the composition of the foam,

He only uses borrowed women when necessary, which tickles his fancy.

In terms of syntax, the early press articles of the time retained the text

voluminous, especially for ecclesiastical literature, chronicles and old documents.

However, phrase structure is quickly being clarified and modernized

the influence of French writing, with which more and more Romanians come into contact,

to study abroad. The same phenomenon does not occur in

Transylvania, where long-standing idioms and foreign themes have long been cultivated.

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CHURCH NEWSPAPER - religious and moral newspaper

Due to political conditions, our press developed slowly

froward. This was recorded for 75 years in the period 1711-1829

the Romanian principalities were captured.

The ecclesiastical type was born late due to the same circumstances. Besides, it is

Added to this is the mediocre cultural status of priests trained in secondary schools.

There was no one to support such a paper, and there were no braves

to perform such tasks.

The beginnings of the ecclesiastical means must be connected with the development

our theological education. 10 years after the publication of the first newspaper

Romanian can be found when there were only three newspapers in all areas inhabited by Romanians

a man of heart, initiative and courage who publishes the first church newspaper,

mit dem Τίτλος CHURCH BULLETIN, 1839, u Buzău.

We are talking about the Hierodeacon Dionysios Romanos, a student of Bishop Hilarion, who spent approx.

Help the famous professor Gavriil Munteanu from the seminar


On December 18, 1838, two editors issued a "Notice," which was published in

all the Romanian provinces through which they declare that "subordinates, starting from".

Next year I want to bring to light the religious and moral enemy by name


Showing that "the need for such a paper is known to all who . . ."

he values ​​religion and knows the power of morals," notes that "and a penchant for reading."

it spread and spread day by day, as in other similar classes

and among the clergy."

Like "until now we've been missing a leaf of this color, so below the notes."

I think this venture will not pass without time, and I am flattered by it

he hoped that their foia would be welcome before the reading public.

The newspaper is published once a week and contains "stories, anecdotes,

Proposals and all kinds of religious and moral articles and other internal communications

and from outside that touch their sphere or are related to the purposes they establish: from a

they nurture the religious and moral spirit that has always characterized the Romanian people."

On January 7, 1839 the announced paper appeared under the diocesan printing presses

Buzaului, mit folgendem Title:


Religious and moral paper

Saturday, Number 1, January 7, 1839.

This foae together with a half reed in octave form

This is once a week


The subscription is made in Bucharest to D: the secretary of the offices of the metropolis Ag.

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U D: Seminar Inspektor i u D: Iosif Romanov.

And in the counties in C. Otcârmuira. and in D:D: The teachers of the people.

The subscription price for both papers is an imperial yellow paper


The format is 40, with eight pages per issue.

The press of the time glorified the publication of the newspaper:

Literaturkurier, Romanian Albina, Gazeta de Transilvania: "quite useful".

he will come out of this foyer in the middle of the lot like every Romanian."

VB publishes sentences, jokes and many translations from French

de Dionisie, an experienced translator from "Satobrian, Philosophical Dictioner, Dictioner".

Theologically, Burdallu, Masilon'.

/ Translations of episcopal students ST

/ Speeches on various occasions: ex. Hilarion Argeșului, Ierotei, insp. seminar

from Bucharest, archim. Euphrosyne path

The "add" announced in the notification was written by Gavriil Munteanu

with each number half sheet, religious meditations, translations from

"Hours of devotion for the advancement of true and domestic Christianity

glorifying God."

At the beginning of the second year the editors published a new "announcement."

Thanks to the subscribers "both church and politics" and

"Loyal to the purpose that suggested it to her, she will force herself not to do it with all her might

away from him."

Newspapers and supplements will be slightly larger and the price will remain the same

"moderate", same as last year. The tone is harmless, deleted, dogmatic and moral.

The indifference of the priest contributed to the cessation of the publication of the newspaper

in the late 1840s.

The appeal of priest Câmpulung-Muscel shows the high priest they imagined

gazeta en sila "and not by pleasure or will, and like some whose means do not save us."

He also had to pay the money, not even our brains forgive us for figuring out what that means

in them, even though they are written in Romanian.

The poor grammarians besought His Majesty to relieve them of this task, and wrote

to the archpope: "If your holiness wants to take the money from us by force, as you give it to us."

newspaper, send us to police custody and send us vatașei sf. It is yours to take us with you

Demolishing our homes, I promise we are determined not to give money until that happens

the High Ruler ordered."


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In refuge in Mrea Băbeni, Dionisie returns to the field of ecclesiastical journalism and

issued the second publication within three years, from September 1, 1850 to

August 1853

Printed in Bucharest, at the printing house of Iosif Copainig, on 4 pages.

Volume numbering, editing in the church of Ag. Dumitru, metokul ep.

Buzaului, on Francaška Street,

In September 1851 the title Ecul became ecclesiastical.

Printed in several printing houses since December 1851. Holy Metropolis.

The newspaper will only publish articles "concerning the development of truths".

faith and ethics. News about Beserica, inside and out

Outside. Publications for the clergy or the public. Eulogies, funerals, etc

Circumstances... and all objects suited to their purpose of nourishing the spirit

religious and moral and to show how virtue is useful and how harmful

it is the vice of men of all ranks and positions.'

Nothing political fits in her columns.

Gazeta de Moldavia and the Journal of Mind, Heart and Literature welcome, with

Joy, "the revival of this paper, by the co-operation of which our clergy may fill one."

his saving work".

The content is much more varied and interesting than VB.

Important current events, campaign speeches, investments and

Montaža miter Nifon and biskupi Râmnic, Argeș and Buzau 1850.

Das Abonnementsystem, Abonnenten u Bukureštu, Buzau, Focsani, Craiova, Argeş,

Tg Jiu, Iasi, Bacău, Mrile Neamț, Agapia and Văratec. In den Abonnenlisten erscheinen sie

names of famous people of that time.

The Ecclesiastes, Bucharest weekly, 1 January - 25 December 1857 and 1 March 1858 - 19 February

in 1859.

The newspaper was published weekly from January 1 to December 25 in Bucharest

1857 and March 1, 1858 – February 19, 1859 on the initiative of two monks from

Metropolitan of Bucharest: Ilie Benescu and Protosinghe Dionisie Măldărescu,

treasurer of the Holy Metropolis. This was the desire of the two editors

The magazine "to bring this unfortunate people who can no longer bear their many sufferings".

he knows whom to listen to when he knows his true duty" (O. Ghibu, 1910,

P. 25). This goal was to be achieved by the "systematic introduction of a".

Religious knowledge and religious morals have deteriorated so much" (O. Ghibu, 1910,

P. 25). The magazine was also addressed to the clergy in order to strengthen their consciousness towards the sea.

his duties to lead the lost so that "he had to."

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Prove to the clergy and the whole nation that the Church is not an institution

temporal, an examination of the human mind, but a divine institution not permitted to do so

Loss (...) rises above every dogma that the mind creates

human and therefore any person with an enlightened mind cannot deviate from it

these institutions' (O. Ghibu, 1910, p. 27). That was faith

which the preacher expressed in the first place. He debuts with one

issued with a course and systematic course in general ecclesiastical history

Christian ethics, which he considered essential. To justify his name, in

In each issue the sermon that the priests had to deliver will be published

Talk to the congregation and therefore focus more on immediate needs

clergy. The minister "correctly understood the goals of the clergy and the church."

Then, when a thousand changes knocked at the door of the new human soul, eh?

were we - expected the Church to keep nationality intact,

The language and religion of the ancestors” (O. Ghibu, 1910, p. 27).

Dionisie Romano - the father of church journalism.


ROMANO DIONISIE (Christian Dimitrie), MP-DTR

Rođen sam 29. julų 1806. u Săliștea Sibiului, rođen sam 18. jajana. 1873, in Buzau. Mönch in Neamţ unter dem Namen Dionisie (1823), hört sich einige Kurse an

University "St. Sava" and the regular training program for the first Romanian teachers in Bucharest (1831-1832). As a "folk" teacher in Buzău (1832-1843), he built two school buildings, printed textbooks,

runs rural schools in the Buzău region, as a school inspector (1838-1843) (together with Gariil Munteanu) publishes the newspaper "Vestitorul Bisericesc" (1839-1840), the first of its kind in our country, director and professor at his seminary

Bucharest (1843-1848) Archimandrite, who was excluded from education due to his participation in the revolution of 1848, settled in the Băbeni monastery (1849-1851)

Abbot of Sadova Monastery (1851-1854), during which he edited the newspaper "Echo eclistiastic" (1850-1853) in Bucharest and had a collection of pamphlets entitled "Ethical Religious Library", Abbot of Neamţ Monastery (1855-1857 ). ). ) Where is

he founded a primary school with a boarding school for 50 children and a high school, both in Târgu Neamt, and a priestly school in the monastery, which he supported.

In the monastery he reorganized the printing press and the hospital in the monastery, started a series of domestic constructions, moved from Sareti, settled in Iaşi, was a campaigner for the union of the principalities and deputy bishop in Buzău.

(June 1859, consecrated bishop in February 1862), then in Husi (November 1864 – May 1865), on 26 May 1865 he was appointed diocesan bishop of Buzau and served until his death.

In Buzau, he reorganized and renovated the diocesan printing house, which published ten liturgical books and many other books. He founded schools in the hermitages of Dălhăuţi (which were later moved to Nifon) for monks, răteşti and coteşti

Nuns, materially helped numerous monasteries and

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He made the first donation to cultural institutions or to young people for studies

books of Romanian academic societies, of which he was posthumously elected honorary member, his library (over 150 Romanian manuscripts,

Slavic, Greek, Turkish, Arabic and over 7,000 books in various languages ​​(some bibliographic rarities) entered the heritage of the Romanian Academy.


Romanian Alphabet for Young Beginners (1834 and 1839) Religious Alphabet (1835)

Library of young beginners 2 parts (1837-1838), all in Buzău,

Hymns in prose for children beginning to read, free translation, Iaşi, 1858, 78 p. (2nd edition in Buzău 1869)

Abbreviation of Sacred Geography, Bucharest, 1850, 52 p.;

Abbreviation of Ancient Geography, Bukurešt, 1850, 57 str.;

Summary of the sacred hermeneutics or some explanations of the sacred scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, Bucharest, 1851, 78 + 67 p.

Principles of rhetoric and eloquence of the pulpit, 2 volumes, Iasio, 1859, 179 + 162 pp.

Words of a believer, A.F. Lamennais, translation, Bucharest, 1848, 108 pp. (2nd edition, Iasi, 1859),

Comforter of the mournful, sick and aged or collection of meditations.... 3 pamphlets, Bucharest, 1850 (2nd edition, Iasi, 1859, 139 p.,

Translations by J.B. Massillon); Genius of Christianity, translated by Chateaubriand, 3 pamphlets, Bucharest, 1850, 56 + 63 + 63 pp.

From the Confessions of St. Augustine, Bucharest, 1850, 64 p.;

From the Meditations of St. Augustina, 3 brochures, Bucharest 1851, 191 p.

Manual of a true monk, guide of souls on the way of salvation, Iasi, 1858, XIV + 104 p.;

A Collection of Orations, Funerals and Other Occasions for Seminarians, Iasi, 1859;

General principles of wisdom and duties of the young (extract from Vestitorul Bisericesc (1839), Buzău, 1871, 56 pp. (reprinted by 0. Ghibu, 1916 under the title: Do you want to be wise?)

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Ecclesiastical Press of the United Principalities since 1859




Vladavina Alexandrua Ioana Cuze (1859.-1866.)

Structural changes in the political, social, economic and cultural life of the state

a modern Romanian citizen

reforms in the life of the Church

- Declaration of the Autocephaly of the BOR (1864)

- Administrative-ecclesiastical association: 1865 The "Primate" was created by M. Ugrovalchias,

Foundation of the Holy Synod in 1872

- Reform of theological education

- Secularization of monastic property

Gehrung Nifon (1850.-1875.), μίτρ. Sofornie Miclescu (1851.-1860.)

Deputy, since 1865 appointed by Mr

Theological schools: In 1860, catechetical schools in Moldavia were converted into primary schools

ST reform from Moldova (MK)

Iasi (Sokola) 8 cl, R, H 4 cl

FT Socola Iasi Univ. 1860, University of Bucharest in 1864

Secularization of monastic property

This law was passed by Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza to capture him

to acquire and transfer to them all real estate and assets of individual churches and monasteries

State property to "increase the prosperity of the country". Also during Cuz some

Monasteries and hermitages were completely abolished or turned into peaceful churches.

Ruler Ioan Cuza introduced a 10% tax on net income

Monasteries, churches, certain seminaries, social welfare centers, etc

Faced with these harsh measures, Metropolitan of Moldova Sofronie Miclescu did just that

There were several protests, which subsequently led to his removal from office

A situation that later led to the fall of Kogălniceanu's government.

The Secularization Act was passed in 1863 and in addition to the aforementioned laws

The confiscation of some assets that some had should also be mentioned

monastery on Mount Athos and which they received long before that

other rulers (Stephen the Great, Michael the Brave, etc.) because the monks are out

Let Saint Gora pray for the well-being of his rulers. Overall it was

about 25% of the land and woodlands taken from churches a

Romania and Moldova

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tax reform

Agrarian reform

educational reform

Burial Law of 18 March 1864 (municipal cemeteries)

Municipal law (civil status laws)

Civil Code of 1864

Instruction Act 1864

For the holy year 1864, 3 laws:

Religious law

Select MB. No general, no family, no diocese

Biographical decree for the establishment of the central synodal authority

Synod law

"The BOR is and will remain independent of any foreign ecclesiastical authority,

in relation to organization and discipline"

- Regulation of election of the General Assembly of B.R.

- Internal regulation of the General Assembly

General synod + episcopal synods on January 11, 1865. MITR PRIMAT al.


General Synod - criticized in newspapers as PRIEST, CHURCH, REFORM

The fight for normality

Law on the Appointment of Metropolitans and Bishops in Romania, 1865 = Appointment

Bishops and their trial before the civil court

The race for the can. - The brothers Neofit and Philaretos Scriban, their nephew Archbishop Joseph

Bobulescu, biskup Ioanichie Evantias, člány borda Scarlat Rosetti, newspaper


Patriarch Sophronios III. condemns the Three Laws, charges which the Romanians rejected

With the replacement of Kuza, tensions between EK and BOR ease

The Organic Act of 1867

1872 Act for the election of metropolitans and archbishops

and the establishment of the Holy Synod BOR

Synod Act from 1872

head. And the election of the archbishop

2 Mithras, Bishoprics, Romanian titular bishops + all senators and deputies

Orthodox in office. Elections are held with larger votes and then confirm up to


Reign of Karol I (1866–1914), 1866–1881, ruler, from 1881 king

Constitution of 1866

War of Independence, 1877-1878

The Balkan Wars of 1913

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Constitution of 1866: 8 titles, 133 articles

Article 21 Freedom of conscience is absolute. Freedom of all religions is guaranteed

as long as their celebration does not affect public order or property

Ethics. The orthodox religion of resurrection is the dominant religion

Romanian state. The Romanian Orthodox Church is and will remain untouched by anything

foreign hierarchies, but maintains unity with the universal Church of the Resurrection

in doctrines. Spiritual, canonical and disciplinary matters of the Church

The Romanian Orthodox want the rule of a central synodical authority,

according to a special law. Metropolitans and bishops of the Church

The Romanian Orthodox are elected in a manner determined by a special law.

Article 22. The actions of the political state are matters of the political government. Preparing this

Actions must always be performed with religious blessing

Marriages are compulsory, except for marriages defined by special law.

Article 23. Education is free. Freedom of education is guaranteed

Its application would not harm morals or public order. suppression

Criminal offenses are regulated only by law. Primary schools are gradually established

all municipalities of Romania. Attendance at public schools is free.

Primary education becomes compulsory for young Romanians everywhere

Primary schools are established. There is a special law that regulates everything

Public Education.

Article 24 The Constitution guarantees everyone the freedom to communicate and publish their ideas

their capabilities through language, writing and print, for which everyone is responsible

abuse of these freedoms, in cases provided for by the Criminal Law, contained in

this matter will be investigated and dealt with subject to the right

per se or to create an extraordinary law. Press crimes are judged accordingly

Jury. There is no censorship, no other preventive measure for display, sale

Otherwise, distribution of the version cannot be renewed. For

Publications in the journal do not require prior approval from the relevant authority.

No submission required from journal writers, authors, publishers, printers, etc.

lithographs. The press will never be subject to the warning regime. no

Publication of a journal or publication cannot be suspended or suspended. He is the author

Responsible for the writings, whether in the absence of the author, they are responsible for him

guarantor or issuer. Come on, every magazine should have a responsible guarantor who

enjoys civil and civil rights.

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Article 25. The confidentiality of letters and telegrams is inviolable. Wow, that will be the law

To determine the liability of public officials for violations of privacy

letters and parcels assigned to post and telegraph.

Metropolitan Primate

Metropolitan Primate of NIFON (1850./65.-1875.)

On September 14, 1850 he was elected Metropolitan of Hungary and enthroned on October 8, 1850.

On January 11, 1865, he was awarded the title of "Prime Metropolitan" of Romania and was vicar until his death.

The episcopal theological seminaries, which were closed during the revolution of 1848, were reopened in 1851. In 1852 a

he established a printing house, where he published almost all workbooks (later taken over by the state). Review me

various places of worship were built at his expense: Zamfira Monastery, Cetătuia Desert in Râmnica Vâlcea

Foundation of the church in Letca Noua (now Giurgiu district).

The metropolitan of Nifon was president of the ad hoc divan in Bucharest (1857) and

The Electoral Assembly that elected Alexandru Ioan Cuza as Lord (January 24, 1859). They did it while the pastor was there

known ecclesiastical reforms of Alexandru Ioan Cuza (secularization, conciliar law, law on

appointment of metropolitans and bishops).

In 1872, the Organic Law was passed for the election of Metropolitans and Bishops

establishment of the Holy Synod". In 1872 he founded with his own funds a second seminary with 8 classes in Bucharest.

bore his name. Until 1948, this seminary was financed by funds bequeathed to it by the diocese

income of Letca Nouă property. Metropolitan Nifon Rusailă received eternal life on May 5, 1875 in Bucharest.

he was buried in the monastery of Cernica.

Metropolitan Primate CALINIC MICLESCU (1875-1886) Nach dem Tod von Metropolitan Nifon Rusailă wurde IPS Calinic Miclescu am 31. May 1875 zum Metropolitan Primase apó gewählt

of Romania and held this dignity until his death. On April 11, 1876, he was elected a legal senator

proposal of I.C. Brătianu, President of the Senate, with 47 out of 53 voters. On March 14, 1881

The Senate, after the House of Representatives, passes the law that makes Romania a kingdom and proclaims Charles I.


During his pastorate, the courses of the Theological School in Bucharest were opened in his residence.

(1881); Founded (1882) a church printing house for books. On March 25, 1882, Maundy Thursday of Easter, year

Members of the Holy Synod consecrate for the first time Saint and Great Myros in his metropolitan church

Bucharest without the permission of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. This is proof that autocephaly exists

it just became a matter of formality. This action caused a very strong written protest from the patriarch

Ecumenical Joachim III. The Roman bishop Melchizedek gave the answer on November 23, 1882

to make a "Synodical law that will cover the autocephaly of the Romanian Orthodox Church and its relations with the Patriarchate

Constantinople". After many attempts it was confirmed on April 25, 1885 by the Ecumenical Patriarch Joachim IV.

autocephaly of our Church. On May 30, 1885, the Romanian Metropolitan Calinic Miclescu sent a

Letter of thanks to the Ecumenical Patriarchate, in which the other autocephalous sister churches are also informed.

official recognition of the autocephaly of the Romanian Orthodox Church. They were visited by Metropolitan Kalinik Miklescu

forever on August 14, 1886.

Metropolitan JOSEPH GEORGIAN (1886-1893)

On November 22, 1886, he was elected Metropolitan of Romania and enthroned

this dignity on November 30, 1886. On March 29, 1893, Metropolitan Iosif Gheorghian became

(1886-1893) had to resign because he refused to accept the "Clerical Law".

Lay people and seminaries," submitted by Take Ionescu.

On May 18, 1893, the electoral college, with the help of conservatives, elected him instead

The majority of votes, 168 to 220, for the bishop of Argeş, Ghenadie Petrescu. installation as

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The primacy of the metropolis was held on 21 May 1893 in the metropolitan cathedral, held on that day

celebrate the feast. The first official act of his new pastoral care as metropolitan was the proposal of a bill

clergy and seminaries, which he submitted to the synod and which was then voted on


IPS Iosif Gheorghian settled in Caldărușani Monastery. After boarding

to Metropolitan Ghenadie Petrescu, IPS Iosif re-elected Metropolitan of Romania on 6

December 1896, enthroned December 8, 1896, vicar until his death. He translated

various theological works from the French language and patristic writings. He was elected as a member

Awarded by the Romanian Academy on May 21, 1901.

Metropolitan Josif Gheorghian received eternal life on January 24, 1909 in Bucharest

he was buried in the church of Ag. Jurja" in the Cernica monastery.

THE MIREAN CLERGY ACT 1982 states: Salaries of priests

state or municipal budget: various categories, for urban LT or Dr 200;

Those with ST (over 8 years old) 100 lei, with ST below 60 lei, those with urban hair 60 lei

The "surplus" of the municipality, above the legal number of 150 LT...

"surplus" rural PR, 25 lei, first 300 lei

Metropolitan Superior Ghenadie PETRESCU (1903.-1909.)

On May 18, 1893, he was elected Metropolitan of Wallachia, which he succeeded.

Metropolitan Josif Gheorghian (1829 – 1909), who resigned due to disagreements

a conservative government came to power. Gennades' rise to the throne is related to this

The metropolitan was seen as an effective tool for conflict resolution, the bishop said

known to Arges as sympathetic and indeed close to the conservatives.

In 1895, after the election, the conservative government falls and is replaced by a liberal government

under the leadership of Dimitria A Sturza. Under such circumstances, the question of Josip's return is acute

Gheorghian at the seat of the Metropolitan. He was tried on charges on May 20, 1895

unfounded - Innovations in worship, sacrosanct, gyrophilia - Metropolitan Gennadios was catheterized and

ins Kloster Căldărusani verbannt.

Metropolitan Primate Atanasie MIRONESCU. Am 5. February 1909 wurde er gewählte

First Metropolitan of Romania, vicar until June 28, 1911, when he retired from the episcopal see. If S

After that, Athanazije lived in the Cernica monastery for the rest of his life. Metropolitan Athanasios fell asleep

Eternal on October 9, 1931 in Bucharest.

Metropolitan Conon Arămescu Donici (born February 2, 1837 – August 7).

1922 in Bucharest) was a Romanian priest who served as a metropolitan and head of the Church.

Romanian Orthodox (1912–1918).

When the Great Union was created in 1918, the bishop of Myron Kristea was part of it

delegation of Transylvanian Romanians presenting the act of union in Bucharest.

Kristea was selected in recognition of his services to the integration process

The Great Electoral College takes over on 31/18. December 1919. President (left).

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vacancy) of the main metropolitan of the Church in the whole of Romania. Investment i

the enthronement took place the next day.

Development of church media

On January 28, 1862, the Church appeared in Bucharest, in the edition

Father Grigorie Musceleanu, "the first Romanian priest to take care of it".

organization of priestly societies" (O. Ghibu, 1910). The post carried a clue

us through published historical material, unpublished historical documents and sketches,

especially regarding the Romanian monasteries.

Between 1862 and 1865 he also edited the newspaper Domineca.

Attracts the attention of the Institute of Education, Al. Otopescu also issues a circular

priests to register.

After some favors given to him by the emperor Alexander A. Kousa

Musceleanu, who named him inspector of secularized monasteries in the pages

The magazine will contain extensive and laudatory articles dedicated to the master

"He ascended the throne of Mircea, Stefan and Mihai (...) and came to restore Romania

what was foreign to time'. The congregation stopped clapping

Cuz's last works concerning the church, because 19. VII

1864 no longer appears. In 1864, a preacher appeared in Iasi...

Between 1871 and 1872, it appears again under the title Romanian Church.

before the same program (prof. Dr. Mircea Păcurariu, 2008.), " u

The courtyard of Radu Vodă Church » from Bucharest. We aim to contribute to this

To improve the morale of the clergy.

After the dethronement of Kuza in 1866, when nothing more was said

Words with two meanings, but at first glance he could do so without reservation

appearance of Ecclesia (1866–1867), a "moral-religious" newspaper published by Scarlat

Rosetti and the Moldavian Archimandrite Climent Nicolau, former prof

Chocolate. Most of the articles are about Kousa, about independence

History of the Roumanian Church, concerning the non-canonical character of the diocese, at

the formula of the ruler's oath by which he swears to respect regularity

church etc. (O. Ghibu, 1910, p. 52). Person review: “I saw it

also wicked, he rises above the cedars of Lebanon »

The belief that the interests of the Romanian Church can only be protected

Near the Mother Church in Istanbul.

Correspondence with Athens, opinion of the Synod of Russia and Athens

government laws. Cusa - Persecutor, Julian the Apostate.

Carol 1 Nothing without God. The church is listening.

In 1870, at a time of great turmoil for the Church,

Archimandrite Theoktistis Scriban announces the publication of the literary newspaper Glas Crkve

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and religious education. The first issue appeared on December 6 and was self-identified

program like this: "The Direction of Atheist Culture of Our Century i".

the philosophical-materialistic culture and differences of the occult or Masonic society,

which works in a very injurious way against Christianity

in general and of the orthodox faith in particular the absolute freedom in our country a

In all conscience (...), all this must be decided by the Romanian clergy

unite to advance the literary and scientific ecclesiastical field.

This edition also promoted the idea of ​​a "language unit in books".

our Church above all" (O. Ghibu, 1910, p. 65)

through writing

Father Mangra (Vasile).

All these newsletters contain historical documents and articles on the subject

of the past of the Romanian Orthodox Church, will be the forerunner of the first magazine with

of real theological and ecclesiastical character, the official organ of the Holy Synod under the title

Romanian Orthodox Church. It was founded in 1874

Bucharest appears continuously with short breaks (1916-1921).

today as the Official Gazette of the Romanian Patriarchate. The magazine publishes time

Domestic and international services, sermons, articles and history studies

ecclesiastical, translational, paternal, regarding decisions of synodal assemblies

church etc.

It was run by a multi-member editorial board

Members of the Holy Synod, teachers of the Central Seminary and School

of theology, but also of other theologians. The first presidents of the editorial board are

former bishops: Ghenadie Ţeposu, former bishop of Argesa (1874-1877),

followed by Silvestru Bălănescu, Ghenadie Enăceanu (1877-1878), Gherasim

Timus, Calistratus to Orleans. Editorial committees included:

Teofil Ploiesteanul, I Mihalcescu, Iuliu Scriban, Ioan Lupaş κ.λπ.

The theme of the magazine was "We Can't Have Both".

at least one religious newspaper through which Christian teachings can be spread

he fights against the religious delusions that arise in people because they do not exist

Instructions, in short, for the cultivation of men from a religious point of view, and not

only encyclopedic and scientific".

In article 5 of the periodic regulation, the Romanian Orthodox Church writes:

was established: "All the priests and deacons of the parish, the superiors of the monasteries, the directors,

Faculty members are required to read this magazine in order to be educated in it

regarding their ecclesiastical duties".

The main concern of the Romanian Orthodox Church was still

promotion and support of religious education in Romania from the beginning,

as well as writing in pure Romanian. This special attention

According to the language, Article 9 of the same regulation states: “The Journal desires

be written in correct, understandable language. There will be neologisms and new terms

explain in notes'.

Since the journal originally published only theological studies, it was difficult

understood by our priests a century ago, mostly high school graduates

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In four hours of the seminar, the criticisms and objections about her continued.

Only at the end of the 19th century and in the first decades of the century

- In the 20th century, studies and articles on priestly life began to be published.

In fact, the Romanian Orthodox Church was not respected as it should have been

According to the opinion of the lot, it was considered the best professional magazine in the world

At that time he played an important role in the promotion of Romanian theology


Another prominent theological journal was Ortodoxul, which he published

Bucharest, bimonthly since January 1, 1880. The founder is a well-known theologian

Greek Dr. Gheorghe. Zottu (1842–1885), professor of Greek language and literature

in two seminaries and later at the Theological School of Bucharest.

It ceased to be published on August 24, 1886, immediately after the death of the metropolitan.

Primate Calinic Miclescu who supervised her. Then Ortodoxul se magazine was launched

stands out for the variety of published material: theological studies, history, etc

Romanian churches, translations of the Holy Fathers, sermons, news from life

Orthodox sister churches - especially those in Transylvania. summarizing

Life, the magazine witnessed many important events in the chest

He fought for the Church or for which he fought in the same spirit

Created by St. Synod, Romanian Orthodox Church.

The last decade of the 19th century and its first decades

in the 20th century, many other church magazines and newspapers appeared,

which were written by various theologians or some priestly associations. For example

The Pulpit appeared in Bucharest (1891-1893), an organ of the "Ambonul" society.

Romanian" was continued by Avona and the School (1893-1894) according to the will of the Church.

Romanian (1891-1894), edited by several learned professors of theology

in Leipzig, Berlin and Vienna.

Also in 1894, "Vocea Bisericii", the first illustrated newspaper, was published in Bucharest.

edited by Dr. Badea Cireşeanu, G.I Gibescu and others. on their sides

They published studies on the early Christian church and "some of it."

bessere Chroniken», τάκο Onisifor Ghibu.

Another journal appeared in 1894 under the leadership of Al. Musatsu,

A graduate student of theology and a student of philology, he was a defender of the clergy. New newspaper

Inspired by the democratic spirit, he expressed his belief as follows: "We will succeed."

known to all, and the evils that affect the Church, and the benefits that accompany it

it would have, after its adaptation, new forms absolutely required by the spirit

century in which we live". To achieve this goal the editors

in order to "cut the wound alive" to avoid accidental injury

Burns all over the body because the church leadership believes in the village

"no dogs." Three years after his appearance, the Defender of the Lot ceases to exist


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Another periodical written between 1898 and 1914 is School and Church.

under the guidance of Professor D. Stănescu, author of some excellent historical works

Church. This magazine was born out of the need to organize it properly

religious education in schools. He helped promulgate the law

since 1898 for the obligation of religious education in schools.

It should be noted that all the ecclesiastical magazines of that time,

deals with a common theme, namely "the decay of religio-moral sentiment in".

Our time" (...), articles that you both almost find

every page of all our church magazines, which is important outside

Doubt, a very sad sign.'

Since then, efforts have been made in Moldova to remove some publications

around 1844 but only after the Union in 1859 when fighting and intrigue ensued

They calmed down, a priest appeared in Iasi in 1861. A church newspaper appeared

weekly - with breaks - from April 15, 1861 to April 9, 1866.

led by Clement Nicolau, assisted by Hierodeacon Inochentie Moisiu,

the future bishop of Rome. Newspapers called the priest "abandoned."

Church, political and national culture (...) and our society

spiritual, mostly smelly," wrote the priest

his first number and marked the whole field of his work and struggle with it.

The new newspaper bravely faced the existing negative aspects

and in the church. With this in mind, articles of support and interest have been published

at the church.

The second is a preacher of evangelical ethics and humanity

Ecclesiastical printing house, published October 30, 1864 in Iasi. He directed it

two priests from Iasi, Isaia Todorescu, rector of the Socola seminary and

Constantin Ştiubei und dann von Priester Constantin Butureanu. Als

As can be seen from its first issue, the new magazine was intended specifically for teachers and teachers

to the "scholars" of the school. Because of the support he gave

Cousin's policy, against which almost all the members of the church fought, the magazine did not

The priesthood received him well from the beginning and "settled"

in 1865

Published in Iasi Foaia between October 1, 1868 and January 1, 1872.

Ecclesiastical minister of the Holy Metropolis of Moldova, assistant

Metropolitan Kalinik Miklescu. See below for the pages of this magazine

other, official metropolitan documents, circulars, offers, translations.

In response to the newspaper Deşttarea, "which sowed the seeds of envy".

Church" (O. Ghibu, 1910, p. 88), written by a group of "questionable" priests from Iasi.

with ecclesiastical discipline' appears in March 1883 (until January 1887).

Iaşi issued the Theological Review on the initiative of Metropolitan Iosif Naniescu

The seminary professor "Veniamin", Constantin Erbiceanu i

Dragomir Demetrescu. "From the first word" the editors were "convinced of the truth".

that anti-Christian and anti-social ideas are wrong and harmful ideas (...).

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persons transplanted to Romanian soil almost all foreigners and

of our blood' will fight against the philosophy of Conda, this 'patriarch of atheism'.

in Moldavia" and Darwin, who put the teachings of the Christian church in their place.

Church Publications 1859-1918


Pulpit and school 1893–1894


VOICE OF THE CHURCH (illustrated) 1894-1896. Badea Cireşeanu

BOGOSLOVLJE 1897-1898 Stud. In der Theology. Ioan Mihalcescu

COMFORTER 1879-1880, 1898-1904

DIE KANZE 1904-1916 kath. D. Stanescu

VIITORUL, church-educational magazine 1898-1916, Prof. D. Boroian

Until 1904 in Iasi, then in Bucharest


Bucharest Ioan Popescu-Pasărea, I. Mihălcescu

CHURCH AND SCHOOL, Galati, 1889-1897. (VACATION)

PRIESTHOOD 1890-1898, Râmnicu Vâlcea

WORD OF TRUTH 1902-1909, Pitesti

Since 1904. ORTHODOX BOMANOS 1904-1912

THE WAY OF LIFE 1904-1912, Argeş Court


ORTHODOXOS 1910-1913, Iasi

CULTURA (Magazine of Romanian church singers), 1911-1915

CANDELA, FTO Cernăuţi magazine, interruption from the First World War to

in 1923.

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ROMANIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH, Official Journal of the Romanian Patriarchate. will appear

Monthly from October 1, 1874 under the title Romanian Orthodox Church - Journal

ecclesiastical, on the initiative of the Metropolitan Primate of Nifon.

The first editorial board was formed by Bishop Ghenadie Ţeposu (chairman),

Herod. Ghenadie Enăceanu und Protos. Silvestre Balanescu.

In 1878, due to lack of funds, publication was temporarily suspended and resumed in October

1880. (2nd series), didiesmal auf Initiative des Metropoliten Calinic Miclescu,

Silvestru Bălănescu becomes chairman of the editorial board.

From January 1884 to October 1921, it was subtitled as a magazine

ecclesiastical, chaired by Ghenadie Enăceanu (1885-1886) and editors

Nachfolger wurden Inochentie Moisiu (1886–1892), Gherasim Timuş (1892–1894), Calistrat

Orleanou, Meleti Dobrescu, Teofil Mihailescu, Constantin Erbiseanu, Dragomir

Demetrescu, Ion Cornoiu, Dumitru Boroianu, Ioan Mihalcescu, Petre Gârboviceanu and


In 1916, due to the political situation caused by the first, the publication was temporarily suspended

World War.

It reappeared in October 1921 (3rd series) on the initiative of the Metropolitan Primate of Moira.

Kristea, subtitle The Journal of the Holy Synod, members of the editorial board are: Bartolomeou

Stănescu (redatelj), Ioan Mihălcescu (verantwortlicher Herausgeber), Iuliu Scriban (sekretär von

Editors, 1921-1933). Since January 1934, the magazine has been published in six volumes a year

(number 1-12 per year), under the coordination of Patriarch Miron Cristee (president

of honor) and Tit Simedrea (editorial secretary), and are also counted as members

zu: Iuliu Scriban, Niculae Popescu, Grigore Pişculescu (Gala Galaction).

In 1945, the magazine was edited and managed by the Bible Institute and by

Pravoslavna misiya BOR edited by Dumitru Fecioru and Gheorghe Moisescu.

Among the employees of the magazine from the interwar period, it is worth mentioning archim. Julius Scriban, Tit

Simedrea, Teodor M. Popescu, Vasile Ispir, Ioan Coman, Dumitru Fecioru, Nicolae

Chitescu, Gheorghe Moisescu.

In 1948 it became the official newsletter of the Holy Synod with a new editorial committee.

founded by Patriarch Justinian Marina (President), Gheorghe Vintilescu (Director).

office of the Holy Synod), Gheorghe I. Moisescu (Editorial Secretary) and professors

Nicolae Chiţescu, Ioan G. Coman, Grigore Cristescu, Iustin Moisescu, Gheorghe

Arghiropol (Members).

In 1953 it became the official newsletter of the Romanian Patriarchate, edited by the following

BOR Biblical-Orthodox Missionary Institute. From 1977 to 1986, BORs appeared with them

with the blessing and care of Patriarch Justin Moisescus (president) and

1986 and until July 2007, Patriarch Teoktist Arăpaşu (president).

The staff after 1948 includes members of the Holy Synod and teachers

theological institute from Bucharest and Sibiu, including: Dumitra Stăniloae, Teodor M.

Popescu, Ioan Coman, Ene Branişte, Liviu Stan, Mircea Păcurariu, Ion Bria Sowie

popular art historian.

Since September 2007, the newsletter is published with the blessing of blessed father Daniel,

Patriarch Vor.

Over time, numerous studies and articles have been published in the pages of the journal

Doctrinal, moral and pastoral theology, maps, lives of saints, synod decisions,

Chronicles of internal and external church events, book and magazine exhibitions,

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Promoting the teachings of the Christian Orthodox faith and especially portraying his life and

pastoral-missionary and cultural-social activities of the BOR (EOR, pp. 88-89).

Provisions of the magazine "Romanian Orthodox Church"*

Article 1. Based on article 16 of the Decree of the Holy Synod on ecclesiastical discipline it was published in the capital.

Romania, church magazine.

Article 2. The magazine is entitled "Romanian Orthodox Church".

Art. 3. [...].

Article 4. The number of copies corresponds to the number of priests worshiping in churches throughout the country.

Land and other ecclesiastical institutions. In the case of requests from pages, the number of copies may be higher

and private subscribers.

Article 5. All pastors and deacons, heads of monasteries, ecclesiastics, directors and

Seminary teachers and all government ministers should read this magazine for their training

as to their ecclesiastical duties.

Article 6. The magazine deals with the following topics:

On the spiritual, moral and material needs of the clergy and churches in Romania.

Discussions on the history of the Romanian churches.

Biographies of pastors of the Romanian Church and other important people who worked for its prosperity.

The moral and religious duties of the priest towards society.

About religious education in Romania.

Facts from the general history of the Christian Church, and especially of the Orthodox Church, especially those related to

current needs of our church.

Standards of moral behavior and evangelical living from all walks of life.

Models of action and pastoral zeal drawn from the general history of the Church and the life of the Romanian people


Explanations of the annual church readings from the apostles and the gospels.

Every Sunday and holiday he preaches by reading to the people in the church at mass.

From the intentions came the defense of the Church and its institutions from attacks directed against them from all sides

maliciously, or through ignorance, opposing truth to error.

Sermons and other works concern the administration of the parish and the general welfare of our congregation

from the hierarchies of the country for the respective dioceses as well as all theological and ecclesiastical projects

recommended by them.

Sermons, dissertations, and other essays in theology by professors or seminarians and

they are recommended by the episcopal hierarchies.

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Proceedings of the Holy Synod of the Romanian Orthodox Church.

Historical insights into the state of religion and the Church in other Orthodox and non-Orthodox nations.

Also analysis of various religious books published abroad and of some importance.

Interpretation of church orders and readings from a doctrinal, moral and historical point of view.

Announcements, analyzes and reviews of religious books published in the country.

The translations were chosen from among the works of the holy fathers, especially those that would meet the needs of today's situation.

The Church and the Romanian people.

Clarifications of the rules of the Church which, due to ignorance, would be interpreted in the wrong sense and would not be understood.

Generally all that pertains to doctrine, ethics, disciplinary learning and orthodox worship, as well as progress

In the Romanian Church, its spiritual goal.

Article 7. A three-member committee is formed for the preparation and management of the church magazine -

Responsible editors. The members of this committee are appointed by the Holy Synod.

Article 8. All educated persons whose works are determined by the editors are accepted as collaborators

that deserve to be published in the Church magazine.

Article 9. The journal shall be written in the proper language which is as popular as possible and accessible to general understanding.

Neologisms are used only where the aesthetics and accuracy of expressing an idea require it. There will be new conditions

explain in the notes.

Article 10. The style of the magazine must be dignified.

No personality of any kind is allowed, let alone attacks directed at anyone. Even personal attacks

On the other hand, the Newspaper will have to answer to pass them and fight only against the wrong idea they would spread

Attacking magazine publishers or anyone.

Article 11. Nothing that is not in the spirit of the teachings of the Orthodox Church may be included in the magazine, unless

to fight and reject.

Also, content unrelated to the above materials is not allowed in the columns


Article 12 Subscriptions are made through diocesan administrations, especially through priests who send them

The editor lists the number of priests and deacons per district and sends the editor to the primary preparer.

required number of copies.

They will distribute them according to their destination.

Article 13. The subscription price must be kept to a minimum, including printing costs and fees

Editors and other necessary expenses.

Art. 14. [...].

Art. 15. [...].

Art. 16 [...].

Article 17 One of the members is designated as president by the Holy Synod.

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Article 18. The editorial board acquires any kind of foreign church periodicals it deems necessary

magazine expenses.

They become the property of the publisher and form their library.

This decree was unanimously approved by the Holy Synod of the Holy Autocephalous Church of Romania

at its meeting on November 6, 1873.

*approved on November 17, 1873 by the Holy Synod of the Romanian Autocephalous Orthodox Church and

updated by the publishers on March 8, 2010.

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TELEGRAPH ROMAN, a political, industrial, commercial and literary newspaper

Metropolitan ANDREI ŞAGUNA, Sibiu, January 3, 1853.

SPERANTA, literary-ecclesiastical newspaper, organ of the reading society a

Romanian theologians from Arad, 1869 and 1871-1872

Theologians from Sibiu: MUSA, 1871-1909, and those from Cransebeșfoi

PROGRESS, both manuscripts

LUMINA, church, school, literary and business newspaper, GAZETTE

Diocese of Orodosia in Arad? Editor Giorgos Popa, Prof. Ioan Goldiş, future episode. plow,

dann Vincentiu (Vasile) Mangra.

August 1, 1872 – June 29, 1875

CHURCH and SCHOOL, church, school, literary and business papers

Series. Vincentiu (Vasile) Mangra. From January 1, 1879, type of Metropolis founded by

Bishop Ioan Mețianu, novi red Aron (Augustin) Hamsea, do 1899., s

except in 1882-1883 when Magra directed them again.

From 1901 to 1917, it was run by Roman Tsirogariou, professor and director

Theological and Pedagogical Institute, which judged Feder from the newspaper TRIBUNA from Arad.

Diocesan Gazette, weekly, Caransebês, January 5, 1886

drowned Ioan Bartolomeu (1886-1889), Dr. Petru Barbu, Dr. Iosif Olariu, Prof.

Theological and Pedagogical Institute

The official newspapers had a deep national and cultural-scholastic character. pb

A smaller room is reserved for theological subjects.

THEOLOGICAL MAGAZIN, siječanj 1907., Kath. Nicolae Balan, Sibiu

It was published until 1916 and was reissued in 1921

PRIEST JOURNAL, Timisoara, 1910-1918, publisher. Rev. David Voniga

Greek Catholic Publications

RUMANIKI SION, Vienna, 1865-1867. and Cluj, 1871-1872, Father Grigore Silasi

DIE KANZE, brother Iustin Popfiu, Pest and Oradea, sporadically, 1868., 1871., 1881.

Publish mainly sermons

CHURCH PAPER, Blaj, 1883.-1887., organ za verishku kulturu god.

clergy and people, then Dr. Alexander Grama

CHURCH-SCHOOL NEWSPAPER, organ of the metropolitan province

Grkokatolik iz Alba Iulie i Făgăraşa, dvomjelenik

UNIREA, from January 3, 1891 to 1948

CHRISTIAN CULTURE, Blaj, 1911, theological studies

Greek Catholic epic Gherla, further sermons


SERMONS, Gherla, 1875-1890, επιμ. Nicolae Fekete-Negruţiu

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ROMANIAN PRIEST, church, school and literary magazine, 1880-1890.

KATOLIČKA TRGOVINA, Baia-Mare und Şişeşti, 1885.-1891., Vasile Lucaciu

SHEPHERD, Simleu and Czech Silvania, 1906-1914

Educational journals were started and published by Church officials

PÄDAGOGISCHE ORGEL, Sibiu, Prof. Ioan Popescu, 1862.-63.

EDUCATIONAL MANUAL, Sibiu, 1897-1900, edited by Prof. Daniel Popovic-

Barcianu, with the support of Dimitrie Comşa, Dr. Petru Şpan and Dr. Ioan Stroia

SCHOOL OF FIRE, January 1907. Dr. Petru Şpan, until 1914, after his death

University (1911), Prof. dr. Vasile Stan, future bishop of Maramureș


Confessor from Arad

EDUCATIONAL, Caransebeş, 1909-1914

ECONOMUL, Blaj, 1873-1880, with attached school sheet, pedagogical instrument.

Didactic for Romanian schools, led by Ioan Micu Moldovan

FOIA SCOLARĂ (SHOLASTIC), an educational, literary and scientific organ,

1883-1886 (view, professional).

SKOLA (SCHOLASTIKO), Organ of the Union of Greek Teachers

Catholics from the Archdiocese of Blaj, edited by Prof. Ioan Fekete-Negruţiu

ROMANIAN MUSE, Music and Literary Magazine, Blaj, Prof. Iacob Muresianu, 1888.

i 1899-1914.

Historical and literary magazines

ARCHIVE OF PHILOLOGY AND HISTORY, Timotei Cipariu, Blaj, 1867-

1870 and 1872, studies, documents, old texts and other sources on the history and

Romance language.

RĂVAŞUL, cultural illustrated magazine, Cluj, 1907-1910, grave, ex. Elias

they gave

ILLUSTRATED BOOKLET, for parties and the popularization of literary knowledge and

wissenschaftlich, Sibiu, Cath. Daniil Popovici-Barcianu, 1891.

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Ecclesiastical press in the interwar period

During the First World War, especially between 1914 and 1916, the main part

Orthodox publications ceased to function.

After December 1, 1918, the Great Union, some publications continued to operate,

but there were also new versions.

With the accession of the Kingdom of Romania, the BOR temporarily ceased to exist

of World War 1916. Issue begins on October 1st

In 1921, on the initiative of the Primate Metropolitan of Romania Dr. Miron Cristea (1868 -

1939) with the name "Ephemer of the Holy Synod".

Archbishop Vartolomeu Stănescu was appointed chairman of the board

Editorial board, editor-in-chief is Ioan Mihălcescu, future metropolitan

He was followed by Irinej from Moldavia and the secretary Archimandrite Iuliu Scriban (1921–1923).

deacon Gheorghe I. Moisescu. It became one of the most popular magazines

appreciated throughout Orthodoxy, through published material: studies, articles,

References, bibliographic notes, internal and external journals.

The Patriarch of Fates Kristea is also the one who will increase the number of annual appearances

He started the magazine 6 in 1934 when he was appointed editorial secretary

Metropolitan of Bukovina Tit Simedrea. In the interwar period the magazine has a share

valuable collaborators, such as the future patriarch Nikodim Moudianou, a priest

Grigorie Pişculescu (Gala Galaction) oder die Professoren Teodor M. Popescu, Vasile

Ispir, Nicolae Chiţescu, Niculae M. Popescu et al.

Since 1945, the publication of the magazine has been under the care of the Romanian Orthodox Church

Biblical and missionary institute headed by Father Dumitru



SCRIBAN IULIU, professor of theology, archimandrite, missionary, warrior. Enkel der Bischöfe Neofit und Filaret. (the house of Rev. Prof. Mircea Păcurariu, DTR)

He was born on May 31, 1878 in Galata, died on January 4. 1949, in Bucharest.

He studied at the Theological School in Galati (1890-1893), the Benjamin School in Iasi (1893-1898) and the Theological School in Bucharest (1898-1902, graduated in 1903 and graduated in 1920). Neamţ (1904), ordained priest, early English priest and head of the Romanian Orthodox chapel in Baden-Baden (1904-1909). During this period he attended courses at the School of Catholic and Protestant Theology in Strasbourg and the School of Philosophy in Heidelberg. now he was also ordained an Archimandrite by Metropolitan Losif Gheorghian (1906). He was invited to his homeland and appointed director of the "Central" seminary in Bucharest (1909-1919), then the only teacher until 1928 (he taught church history). and discourse, later the New Testament and ethics). Religious teacher in infantry and artillery military schools (1910–1916), vicar of the church "St. "llie Hanu Colţii" (1918-1944), editorial secretary of the magazine "Romanian Orthodox Church" (1921-1929), archimandrite mitrofor (1924). Professor of homilics and pastoral care at the new Theological School in Chisinau (1928-1941), then transferred to the Department of Homilics and Catechism of the Theological School.

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Bucharest (1941-1943). Participating in various ecumenical and Orthodox meetings outside of baptism: Orthodox Conference on the Calendar Problem (Istanbul-Istanbul, 1923), World Congress on Practical Christianity (Stockholm, 1925), International Congress and Congress of the World Federation for the Fraternity of Church Peoples (Prague , 1928 ) and some regional conferences of this alliance (Sinai 1924, Cambridge 1931, Bucharest 1933), the Conference of Teachers of Orthodox Theology from Athens (1936) and others.

Versatile theologian and man of high culture, one of the great preachers and missionaries of the Romanian Orthodox Church, in his writings and speeches he primarily dealt with the solution of practical problems faced by the Church in the first half of the 20th century: defense and knowledge of Christian doctrine, new pastoral methods, the return of preaching to its rightful place, the cooperation between the churches for peace in the world, the closeness to the Anglican Church. Forerunners of ecumenism and modern theological professions. He published seminary manuals, pastoral studies, apologetics, sermon collections, spiritual development books, etc.


skepticism in religious matters. Its Causes and Consequences, Ploiesti, 1903, 48 pages (graduate thesis),

Free will and determinism, Iasi, 1903, 115 p., Free thought and free opinion, Bucharest, 1910, 108 p.; The fight against immoral writings. Bucharest, 1913, 181 p.; Current Events in the Roman Catholic Church, Sibiu, 1915, 129 p.; (Reprinted from "Revista

theological"); For Language and Homeland, Bucharest, 1916, 90 p. (article published in Rev. "Cultura Românilor"). Devotional literature in Romanian, doctoral thesis at BOR, 1923-1926, Priestly vocation. Top study on pastoral activity of priests, Bucharest,

1921, 163 pages (reprint from "Viitorul" rev. - Bucharest); Pastoral study in the Romanian Church, Sibiu, 1924, 143 p. (reprinted from "Revista"

Theological"). Views from the Speech Sphere, Bucharest, 1929, 176 pages. (taken from BOR)? French preacher: Pierre Brydaine (1701-1767), Bucharest, 1933, 80 + XV pp.; Priest's duty der. Kirchensprache, Sibiu, 1938, 32 p., Forty Popular Sermons, Edition I, Bucharest, 1904, 259 p. (prize of the Romanian Academy).

ed. II: Fifty Popular Sermons, Vălenii de Munte, 1908, 425 p.; Ed. III: Sixty Popular Sermons, Vălenii de Munte, 1913, 560 p.; Ed. IV under the title: Sermons for the People, Bucharest, 1944, 596 pages (80 sermons). Manual of biblical hermeneutics for the 7th grade of the seminary, ed. I, Bucharest, 1911, 140 p.

(2nd edition, 1922, 188 pages). A Course in Moral Theology, or Lessons in Christian Morality, edition I, Bucharest, 1915, 472 p. (ed. a

II, 1921, 684 pages). An Introductory Course in the New Testament, Ed. I, Bucharest, 1924, 224 pp. (2nd edition, 1929, 259 pp.); Commentary on the Holy Gospel, in VOR, year XL, 1922, no. 5, pp. 325-331, no. 8, pp. 581-590,

NOT. 9, pp. 658-668; NOT. 10, pp. 733-745; no. 11, pp. 801-912 and no. 12, pp. 910-921; a. XLI, 1922 - 1923, number 1, pp. 38 - 48; NOT. 2, pp. 104 - 114; NOT. 3, pp. 206-215; NOT. 4, pp. 254-264; NOT. 5, pp. 334-348; NOT. 6, pp. 422-433; a. XLII, 1924, pp. 95 - 103. NO. 3, pp. 155-163; a. XLIII, 1925, no. 2, pp. 91 - 100; NOT. 3, pp. 143 - 149; NOT. 4, pp. 221-228; no. 5, pp. 280-288; no. 6, pp. 343-350; NOT. 7, pp. 403-412; NOT. 8, pp. 479-486; NOT. XLV, 1927, number 6, p. 331-334; NOT. 7, pp. 420-424; NOT. 8, pp. 467-476, no. 9, pp. 540-544; NOT. 10, pp. 510-516; NOT. 11, pp. 673-676.

Seven words of Jesus on the cross, Bucharest, 1921, 63 pp. (and other editions); The Origin of Sunday as a Holiday in the Christian Church, Bucharest, 1921, 63 p.; The Doctrine of the Cross, or the Christian Alphabet, Bucharest, 1922, 62 p.; The pain of Good Friday and the sun of Easter, Bucharest, 1924, 32 p.; Holy Gospel. Four Gospels in one, with short notes on Iamuritore and

Interpretationen, Bucharest, 1926, 196 pp., Interpretation of the Holy Gospels by the Four Evangelists, Chisinau, 1931, 81 pp.; Book of books: Holy Scripture or Bible, Bucharest, 1937, 96 pages. Together with bishop Nikodem (future patriarch) and father dr. Pavel Savin, printed the Little Bible, with

Images accessible to all Christians, Bucharest, 1913 (and other editions to date).

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Hunderte von Articles, Übersetzungen, Notizen, Rezensionsnotizen in Zeitschriften und Zeitungen, wie zum Beispiel: "Rumänisch-Orthodoxe Kirche", "Viitorul", "Revista Ortodoxă", "Neamul Manesc", "Rumunnisikalaska", "Rumunjikalaska" kultura Nedjelja pravoslavna" , sve u Bukureštu, "Wort der Wahrheit" - Râmnicu Vâlcea, "Orthodox Shepherd" - Pitesti, "Revista Theologica" und "Telegraful Român" - Sibiu, "Mitropolia Moldovai" - "Missionarulund" - Kišinjev, "The Home" - Galaţi , "Pastor Tutova"- Bârlad i drugi. Unzählige Konferenzen in Bucharest, Chisinau and other cities, Predigten in der Kirche "St. Ilija" und in

other places.

In 1929 teachers of the Theological School of Bucharest were hired

institutions of the journal STUDII TEOLOGICE, in which articles and studies were published

of a high theological degree.

FT students founded their own magazine RAZE DE LUMINĂ.

And in the capital, the newspaper Apostolul (1924) appears as an official organ of the diocese.

Bucharest. Along with other key publications of ecclesiastical interest, this

it referred to the internal ecclesiastical life in the Archdiocese of Bucharest.




community document



Metropolis of Ramnika:




Bishop Buzau:



Lower Danube Metropolis:



community document


Rev. von Constanta:

this is


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CANDELA reappears in the FT from 1923 to 1946

Metropolis of Transylvania:

At the Theological Academy in Sibiu, with the efforts of Metropolitan Nicolae Bălan

Theologische Magazin resumed its activity in 1921 under the leadership of several great men

People of that time: Venerable Pompey Moruska (later bishop, named

Polykarpos), between 1921 and 1923; Prof. Nicolae Colan (1923-1936, then bishop and

Metropolitan) and Prof. Dr. Grigorie Marcu (1936.-1947.);


Until 1918, newspapers dealt mainly with major issues affecting Romanians

Transylvanian (especially parochial schools), but also those outside the Carpathians

(eg War of Independence), cultural problems of Romania

everywhere (the treatises of the Romanian Academy, reproductions from the works of some

Romanian "classics" from old Romania, etc.).

After 1918, the ecclesiastical paper of the Archdiocese of Sibiu remained, which was published

priest-consultant George Proca (1920-1933), priest-professor Dumitru

Staniloae (1934-1945).

In the interwar period, newspapers published articles about big problems

Romanian Orthodoxy, the attitude of the Church towards certain historical events

(eg Viennese dictatorship).



In Arad:






The diocesan newspaper continued its work

New editions in two dioceses of Transylvania, written by councils and

Professors of Theological Academies:

ROMANIAN LAW, Oradea, 1921

RENAISSANCE, Klausenburg, 1923

In the capital of Moldova:





In the diocese of Rome: ROMAN CHRONICLE


In the metropolis of Bukovina:



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In the metropolis of Bessarabia:







The struggle of national sects,




Magazines and newspapers published by professors of theology or pastors:

ORTHODOX SUNDAY Rev. Prof. Ioan Popescu-Mălăiesti

CHRISTIAN YOUTH, Prof. Dr. Haralambie Rovenţa and the pastor Prof. Mihai




SALE, G. Racoveanu






DER ENGEL, u Buzau, 1925.-1940

THE HOUSE, Kato Dunavi Metropolis, Galati

RAZA, Chisinau

ILLUSTRATED LIFE curated by Prof. Nicolae Colan in Sibiu and Cluj

SPIRIT AND TRUTH, Talk magazine, Timisoara, 1940

VOICE OF THE CHURCH, Bucharest, 1942


ALTARUL BANATULUI, Caransebeş, 1944-1947

The Association of Church Singers publishes the magazine KULTURA.

The religious clergy had a periodical in Cetătăuija, near Iasi, VIAŢA

MONAHALĂ, since 1933, and published in Bucharest by Hieromonk Dionisija Lungu,

from own funds the newspaper GLASUL MONAHILOR, since 1924.

Among the country's faithful newspapers, LUMINA has the largest circulation

SELA, from 1922 and OASTEA DONNULUI, published by the Archdiocese

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from Sibinje, then THE VOICE OF THE LORD (from 1928) and THE ROAD OF REDEMPTION.

1935 in Arad.

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These are some of the most representative church publications

which appears in a wider interwar print configuration, framed

now in a fruitful process of cultural expansion.

Therefore, we can conclude that after the success, the Romanian press knows about it

the unification of all Romanians into a national, sovereign and independent state, in

natural borders of Greater Romania, December 1, 1918, intensive stage

Development under democratic auspices is therefore proposed as the fourth

power in the state

The history of religious media in the interwar period is marked

journalistic dynamism and thematic diversity, unprecedented


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In media theory, four media regimes are defined, two authoritarian and two

two democratic, corresponding to the type of society in which they operate.

The oldest and best-known typology of institutional structures is presented

The role of the media is played by the American professors Fred Siebert,

Theodore Petereson και Wilbur Schramm (Four Theories of Printing, 2nd ed.,

University of Illinois Press, Chicago, 1976): authoritarian model, model

totalitarian, liberal and public service model. In an authoritarian regime

The press is a tool for influencing government policy and it has a right to be

The main purpose is to support the existing power structures. Balance of funds from

social communication in a totalitarian regime (compared to communist-type dictatorships).

Soviet) is total enslavement in order to mobilize the masses for it

Support of energy projects. Mass media in liberal regimes aim to: a

To inform, to nurture, to sell, but above all to learn and control the truth

Government. In the so-called regime of social responsibility, the media take over

civic duty to inform, to entertain, to sell, but above all to oppose it

discussion agenda and ensures balance between public and private agendas.

Restrictive press laws. Censorship, manipulation and language


Entry of Romania into the Soviet sphere of influence after the end

The Second World War brought sudden and painful changes

Society. The media regime is rapidly changing from a liberal model to a totalitarian model.

From the communist point of view, the press can only be a weapon of power

ideological propaganda and manipulation of the masses.

The communist world revolution has always pursued one main goal:

radical transformation of traditional human society using totality

Institutions of power, including state terrorist assets, in sight

Re-educating people in the spirit of the values ​​of the communist revolution.

The requirements set by the State Party also derive from the legislation of the activity

the newspaper. If the Constitution of 1923 (article 25) specifies the status in detail

The 1948 Constitution restricts the establishment and operation of newspaper institutions

it severely curtails free speech and subjects a single party to complete control

media. For comparison purposes, we list the legal texts we refer to:

Article 25 of the 1923 Constitution reads: The Constitution

guarantees everyone the freedom to communicate and publish their ideas and opinions

through speech, writing and print, each of whom is liable for any misuse thereof

Freedoms in cases defined by the Criminal Code, which do not apply in any case

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it will only be able to limit the right. No emergency law will be possible

refers to this topic. No censorship, no other precautions

does not apply to the display, sale or distribution of the publication

could determine. No prior approval is required

Authorizations to display the version.

No submission is required from journalists, writers, publishers, printers, etc

lithographs. The press will never be subject to the warning regime. no

Newspapers or publications cannot be suspended or terminated. Any version

A journal of any kind must have an editor and an editor

in his absence the responsible editor. The director or editor should do this

they enjoy civil and civil rights. Name and surname of the manager

The publisher is displayed prominently and permanently at the top of the publication.

Before publishing a magazine, its owner is obliged

apply and register your name at the Commercial Court. Sanctions of this

Provisions are governed by special laws.

The 1948 Constitution guarantees freedom of conscience and liberty

religious, but restricts the right of recognized cults to participate in education

to the people: No denomination, no church or religious community can do this

opens or maintains institutions of general education, but only special schools

for the training of religious personnel under state supervision (article 27).

As for freedom of speech, in theory it is allowed,

but practically it is completely controlled by the levers of the communist government.

Article 31 of the same Constitution states:

Freedom of press, expression, assembly, assembly, procession, etc

events are guaranteed. The exercise of these rights guarantees

the fact that leverage, paper and meeting spaces are available

the disposition of those who work.

The media control mechanism is now

Censorship. By Decree No. 214 of May 1949, "Address

General of Press and Typography" in the Council of Ministers

People's Republic of Romania, with main features: authorization

layout of printed material (newspapers, magazines, programs, posters, books, films, etc.)

The first concern of that so-called state agency was that

Encouraging the establishment of local party press organs and removing a

those who opposed communist ideology. Publications panorama

Belonging to a party, including among others: Scânteia, organ of

The Central Committee of the Communist Party of Romania, head of the newspaper

für politische Informationen, Flacăra Iaşului (Iasi), Crvena zastava (Bacău), Siebenbürgen

nova (Tg. Mureş), New Street (Braşov), Socialism Street (Deva), Prije

(Craiova), Lupta Siebenbürgen (Cluj), Red Flamura (Resiţa), Secera und

der Čekić (Făgăraş) usw.

As central and local party media reported, the D.G.P.T

on the one hand censorship of newspapers that opposed the declared ideology and

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on the other hand promoting "the spread of Marxism-Leninism and education".

parties throughout the press."

It is structured in VIII chapters, in several sections and 101 articles,

The Press Act of March 28, 1974 defined dependence in the first article

Total media according to PCR policy, translated and concretized in

the mission of creating a "multilaterally developed socialist society". In a bit

Descriptive data, meaning they serve the highest interests

socialist nations, applying the principles of morality and justice to life

Socialists, mass spread of the concept of the working class, class

Leader of Romanian society. Another article it should be

is reproduced as well, as it treats references in an instructive manner

the press with the state party: "The press is doing its job."

led by the Romanian Communist Party – the leading political force

the entire society of the Socialist Republic of Romania".

He was the guarantor of party policy as a guide for the entire press

provided for in art. 22, in which it was stated that the Commission for

First of all, the "agents" had to belong to each organ of the newspaper

central and local party organs".

As for the freedom of the press, it is defined in art. 67 that is

that "it must not be used for purposes contrary to the socialist order".

On the state of the religious press in communist Romania: article

94 provided: "Issues of cults and religious doctrines are organized."

and governed and governed by their own constitution adopted in the Terms

of the Law" and article 67 (which applies to the above) these conditions are mentioned

as follows: "The freedom of the press must not be abused for hostile purposes."

socialist order (...) Publication and dissemination in the press is prohibited a

Materials that "contain attacks on the socialist system and its principles."

internal and external policy of the Romanian Communist Party and the Republic

Socialist Romania".

During the communist era, there was no freedom of expression

"guaranteed" (under Article 31 of the 1948 Constitution), under the conditions that

It was strictly to the wishes and instructions of the P.C.R. year, received on 14.11.2011

on the one hand by promoting their own publications, on the other by censorship

the brutality of those with whom he is uncomfortable.

The role of the press in the communist era was to praise and extol the government

critical of "enemies of the people". There were newspapers, radio and television

the way in which the world was informed about the conquests of the "golden age" and by what means

There was a frustrated worship of the leader, especially during the dictatorship

You burn. Lies and manipulation by the press are journalistic tools

there Price.

Afraid of ideological mistakes, journalists appeared frequently

Patterns of expression and "proven" formulas that have led to the point of derision.

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Publications of the Romanian Orthodox Church

under communist regime

However, the publishing and publishing activities of the church were also limited

It is difficult, especially efforts were made to prevent it in parishes and monasteries

scriptures, devotional books and prayer books are missing. Also to

During that period, theological works of an academic nature were prepared

professors of two theological institutions at university level (Bucharest i

Sibiu) and the publishing house of the Biblical and Orthodox Missionary Institute printed the works

Holy Fathers in the collection started by Patriarch Justin Moisescu: PSB

(Church Fathers and Writers).

Let us mention only two theological references

Period: collection PHILOCALIA (12 volumes) and paternal DOGMATICA

Professor Dumitru Stăniloae, in 3 volumes we can understand it in one period

For the Church, important works were done with special difficulties

Spirituality and theology and Romanian culture.

From an editorial point of view, three central journals: Biserica

Romanian-Orthodox, as an organ of the Holy Synod, profiles on history issues, e.g.

Romanian and pastoral church. Theological studies, as a magazine of the trinity

Theological Institutes and Orthodoxy, as a representative magazine for culture and a

the position of the theology of the Romanian Orthodox Church in the broad field of Orthodoxy


In addition to the central ones, five other church magazines were published

metropolitan centers: the voice of the Church for the Hungarian metropolis

Wallachia, Metropolitan Region of Moldova and Suceava, Metropolitan Region of Transylvania

Oltenia and the metropolis of Banat with six performances a year. In Sibinj

Posted with love by the prominent Transylvanian publication Telegraful Român.

The newsletter has been published in Bucharest in various languages ​​since 1971

French and English – Publishing news from the life of the Romanian Church for

theological circles abroad (Romanian Orthodox Church News).

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The revival of the religious press after 1989

Political and social changes that followed the 1989 revolution

led to a rapid reshaping of the Romanian media landscape. if inside

during the communist regime, the official party and state press, radio and

Public television ignored or disapproved of the religious phenomenon and

sectarian publications were censored and kept in a closed loop as much as possible,

Freedom gained at the cost of many sacrifices allowed further development

Communication through mass media in our country.

Statistics give indications of media explosion in

A particular phenomenon occurred in Romania in the last decade of the 20th century

different for all ex-communist countries: number of newspapers and magazines per 100,000

The number of inhabitants tripled in 1990 compared to 1989 (from 2.1 to 6.2), decreased

around 1993, and then steadily increased until 1999.

Entry and exit from communism can also be diagnosed using

number of publications. Example: In 1935, 2350 copies were printed in Romania

Publications, including 118 daily newspapers. In 1949 we had only 200 publications,

including 83 daily newspapers. In 1989, 495 publications (36

daily newspapers), and the following year in 1990, 1,444 issues, of which 65

Daily newspapers. One can also trace the momentum of the launch in the printing sector

due to the large number of new titles since 1990-2000, 4598 of which 4539

have debut years 1990-1998, resulting in an annual average of 504.3 new titles.

The typology of the publications of this period was constantly diversified

and territoriality (local and regional type, national type, networks

publications) and by content (type of general information, type).

business, political type, military type, sectarian type, sports type,

women's press etc.). Private radio and television stations appeared

and foreign claims can also be added to domestic ones

via satellite or cable networks.

The religious and ecclesiastical press was equipped with these external sights

it is also driven by causality within church communities

supported by the following specific factors:

one. Religious cults return to the public sphere and are free to carry out their activities

certain activities, including the use of mass media, in accordance with the Statute i

normal codes recognized by the state. The Romanian Orthodox Church is reinventing itself

the tradition of the social partner of the state in educational and service activities

Social. Religious education is introduced in pre-university public schools,

Theological seminaries and theological schools are integrated into the system

The formation of the state, religious aid was organized in hospitals and units

An army, prisons, units and social welfare institutions are established

Social assistance funded directly by the church, clubs and others

Christian organizations for lay people. Thus, in addition to operational activities and

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Pastoral, diverse cultural-missionary and social-philanthropic activities are developed

in which the Church is an active agent.

b) Secular mass media are interested in the life and activities of the Church in Croatia

Society, but sometimes gives a distorted or incomplete picture of it

topics are presented. That is why church institutions feel the need for knowledge

and the use of mass media, both for media indoctrination

believers as well as a source of information for the whole society, e.g

promoting important activities and properly informing its members

on missionary priorities and projects and maintaining an active dialogue with

the whole society.

In the two decades of freedom after December, they continued

The activity of all editions appearing before 1989, recently published and,

For the first time the Romanian Orthodox Church enters the audiovisual sector (with the establishment of May

several radio stations and a television station) and uses the press


The thirst for the religious press was evident in the 90s and the introduction to

in the mass circulation of secular publications some pages with theological content: Calea,

Truth and life in RL, Alpha and Omega in or through new radio broadcasts

publicly and through public television dedicated to the religious phenomenon.

The image of the orthodox printing house of that period can be constructed

from different perspectives in terms of content, publishers, journals

addressed the audience.

Church publications of the period 1990-2010 can be summarized according to their content


- Theological publications (publication of scientific studies, articles, etc.)

reviews written by experts).

- Newspapers of ecclesiastical units (patriarchies, metropolises,

dioceses, archbishoprics, parishes and monasteries).

- General publications (in which religious information is combined

information of public interest);

- Cultural and religious sales publications.

In relation to publishers, the classification includes: official publications issued by bodies;

Church, publications issued by theological educational institutions or associations

Christian publications published by private popular initiatives.

In terms of periodicity, the range of publications in our country is sufficient

daily (Ziarul Lumina), to weekly, bi-monthly, monthly editions from 2-6

Appearances by year and year, almanac type.

The audience for most publications consists of clergy and

believers are subject to the normal jurisdiction of the authority issuing the appropriate journal.

Publications published by theological schools, theological seminaries have e.g

a limited audience consisting of a community of teachers and students

students of the institution. The Romanian Patriarchate has been issuing the publication since 1994

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aimed at Orthodox children, and some private initiatives in the style of religious affairs

Their aim is to attract a broad mass of lay believers.


Romanian Orthodox Church, the official newspaper of the Orthodox Church

Romanians. It is published twice a year and includes the following sections: Editorial,

Agenda of the blessed fathers of the patriarchs, patriarchal pastorals and letters

Ireland, ecclesiastical and official decisions, pastoral visits, year of dedication, studies

and articles, Church and society, Church life in the Romanian diaspora,

Spirituality and monastic culture, Orthodoxy today, Orthodox laity

Church, restoration, publishing event.

Pravoslavlje, magazine of the Romanian Patriarchate. It has been published continuously since then

1949 and from 2009 in a new series. Employees are: hierarchies, staff

Teachers of pre-university and university theological training, doctorates in

Theology, graduates, postgraduates, students and priests. It is a publication

quarterly and includes the following sections: Editorials, Studies, Orthodoxy

Paternal records, citations in books and journals.

Theological studies, magazine of the theological schools of the Patriarchate

Romanian. Published since 1929, currently in its third edition.

Collaborators are the Most Reverend Metropolitans and the Most Reverend Bishops,

Reverend priests, professors of the Orthodox Theological School, etc.

Doctor of Theology Candidates, Masters, Theology Students and

priest predecessor. It's a quarterly, every issue has it

about 300 pages.

Areas of the magazine:

Foreword – editor's speech that opens each issue of the journal and introduces:

content of this issue.

studies. Original studies are published that have not and will not be published in any other journal.

missions and pastoral care. The rubric is intended for theological studies dealing with matters directly related to it

the daily work of the vicar in the parish. This represents an important period of theological life,

which we should pay more attention to in church educational institutions. Published studies

In this part, we try to be a useful support and a summary of useful information for priests who

At the church level, they try to provide the faithful with a better understanding.

From the holy fathers of the Church. Each issue of the magazine contains a translation of the church fathers: a

Text not translated into Romanian, with introduction, notes and comments where appropriate.

From modern Orthodox theology. The material of greatest interest was published in translation by a

Orthodox edition from abroad.

theological dialogue. The aim of the column is to encourage academic and collegial dialogue between theologians and theologians

to create an urgently needed critical reception of theological book production. Contains critical reactions to

materials published in the pages of the journal Studii Teologice, critical reception of theological works

referred to the country and abroad and commented on certain events or phenomena


The Chronicle of the Theological Schools of the Romanian Patriarchate includes important life events

of theological schools that took place in the interval between the publication of two issues of the journal Studii.

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Theological: Symposia, theological conferences, awarding of doctorates, cooperation with schools

Theology from abroad, teacher competitions, etc.


theology journals. Each issue represents a theological journal from Germany or abroad.

Books received from publishers. In this column, the most recent appearances are listed in a list format

a theological book, but also a book from a field that directly or indirectly interests the reader

Journal (history, philosophy, cultural history, sociology, anthropology, etc.).

The Romanian Patriarchate also publishes three magazines

(Novine Lumina daily, Lumina de Duminì weekly, monthly

Herald of Orthodoxy) and a monthly magazine for children of Chemare

believe. The daily newspaper Ziarul Lumina has been in circulation since February 7, 2005

presents a national edition and four regional editions: in Iasi, Sibiu and Craiova


Metropolitan Magazine:

The Voice of the Church, the official newspaper of the Metropolitan City of Muntenia and Dobruja, is published.

in Bucharest; Theology and Life – Metropolis of Moldavia and Bukovina, in Iasi.

Theological Review - new series in Sibiu, 1990; Metropolis of Oltenia, na

Κραϊόβα; Altarul Banatului (neuer Titel für die Metropole Banatului).

In Sibiu, the oldest Romanian version with

continuous publication since 1853, Romanian Telegraph.

Organize the episcopal centers of the Muntenia and Dobruga metropolis

His publications, usually published monthly:

- Orthodox Guide - Monthly for information and spirituality

Lower Danube Diocese, Galac, 1990;

- Orthodoxes Tomisul, erscheint in Constanta.

- Argesul Orthodox, Curtea de Arges;

- Orthodoxes Bărăganul, Slobozia;

- Revista Ortodoxă, Giurgiu, aus 2007, Serie II, 48 Seiten, Magazin

illustrated mieroknik

In Iasi, since 1992, there is an official newspaper Candela Moldovai

Metropolis of Moldavia and Bukovina. Among the publications he edited

Dekanate nennen wir: Riječ i duša (Iasi), Gazeta Christiana (Botoşani).

- Candela – illustrated magazine of the Archdiocese of Suceava and Rădăuţi,

Sučava, 1990 (monograph).

- Orthodox Faith - monthly, Roman Diocese, 1996

Diocese of Transylvania: together with Theological Magazine and Telegraph

Romanian, - Romanian language - Spiritual bulletin issued by the Metropolis

Harghita and Covasna, 1996.

In Cluj, the publication of monthly magazines continued in a new series

Renaissance, with the contribution of Philokalia for the young.

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- Ancient Faith, magazine of the Romanian Orthodox Archdiocese of Alba

Iulia is in its 20th year of activity.

- Epiphany - religious spiritual magazine published by the monastery "St.

John the Baptist on Sunday, 1995.

- Romanian law - founded by bishop Roman Ciorogariu

Oradea - now in the new series, 1990.

Buna Vestire – Beiuş Archdiocese newsletter, 1992;

- The voice of our church, Baia Mare (diocese of Maramureș i


Mitropolia Oltenia: Together with the journal of theological studies Mitropolia Oltenia i

"Revista Ortodoxă" is published in the regional edition of the newspaper Lumina

lines. The reissue was released on October 19, 2010

with the blessing of the Most Reverend Father Irineos, Archbishop of Craiova and

Metropolitan of Oltenia, who explicitly wanted to support the effort

Publications of priests of the metropolis. In addition, the magazine wants

he puts forward the literary talent of the Olten clergy to achieve something

Future publications including: sermons, catechism, meditations, studies, articles

etc. Also, the best received articles will be published on the pages

Lumina Journal, Oltenia Edition. For the thematic selection of the materials they have

The sections: "Theology and life" - for sermons, catechesis,

studies or articles of a theological nature; "Illustrious biographies" - for

biographical material; "Monasteries and churches from Oltenia" - for texts from

historical character for holy orthodox places within the metropolis

Oltenia? "Speech from the pulpit" - for sermons and catechism.

- Renaissance - the illustrated magazine of the diocese of Râmnicu, Râmnicu-

Valcea, 1990 (encyclopedia entry).

Metropolis of Banat:

- Resurrection - Religious paper - Archdiocese of Timisoara, 1990.

- Diocesan Bulletin - Diocese of Caransebeş, new series, 1994.

- Church and school - Diocese of Arad, new series, 1991.

- Path of Salvation – Pastoral Mission Week of the School

Theology from Arad, 2000. The Theological School from Arad also publishes a magazine.

Field of Study: THEOLOGY.

Most of the listed publications have created their own websites

and published material can be read in PDF format over the network


Theology students from various theological schools of the country as well as

Some theological seminaries in secondary schools publish their own newspapers or magazines.


- Potirul - is the magazine of the Orthodox Students Association from

Romania, published in Sibiu in 2000.

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- In the light of Benjamin Costachis, the school's student magazine

Theological from Neamţ Monastery.

Among the initiatives that came from the Orthodox laity, we mention here

the magazine Oastea Domnului, the newspaper Isus Pobjednik published by the association

religious organization Oastea Domnului and several publications printed by the group

World of Faith Publishing Office: Illustrated World of Faith Store (A5 format,

Multicolor, 72 pages, average circulation 25,000 copies), from 2003, Lumea

Monks (A5 format, polychrome, 72 pages, average circulation 7500 copies),

από το 2008, World of Faith for Children, Atlas of the Christian World.

Timothy - illustrated magazine for young people, published since 1993, ca.

Supplement to the newspaper Isus Pobjednik, published by the Oastea Domnului association

year 1990

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The presence of the Romanian Orthodox Church in the audio-visual space, launched through radio

TRINITAS in Iasi on 17 April 1998 is currently insured with attachments

Radio (TRINITAS, Patriarchate of Romania-Bucharest, 34 terrestrial frequencies and 2

Satellite frequencies, with a central studio in Bucharest and local studios in Iași,

Logos-Craiova und Sibiu; Lumina-Drobeta-Turnu Severin, Renaissance-Cluj-

Napoca, two frequencies. Reunion Alba Iulia, 3 frequencies. Radio Dobrudja

Constanta i Radio Orthodoxia-Brasov.

Trinitas TV started operating with satellite transmission

Bucharest on 27 October 2007.


The field of communication and public relations is organized in the form of a center

Type, with five components in which the mission is carried out through modern means of communication

it is intertwined with the opening and institutional dialogue of the Church with society, the masses

media and public opinion.

On the initiative and with the blessing of blessed father Danilo, Patriarch of the Church

Romanian Orthodox, October 27, 2007, Feast of Saint Demetrius the Younger

Basarabi, the press center of the BASILICA of the Romanian Patriarchate, was established

central in the Palace of the Patriarchate in Bucharest. It consists of five elements: Radio

TRINITAS, TRINITAS TV, group of three publications (daily newspaper Ziarul

Lumina, the weekly Sunday Light, the monthly Herald of Orthodoxy),

BAZILIKA news agency, press and PR office.

The objectives of the BASILICA type center are formulated in Art. 5 of

Organizational and operational status:

a) Maintaining an active relationship and fruitful cooperation between the clergy and

believers, between church and society.

b) Presentation of the Church's institutions, actions and attitudes in society

Romanian Orthodox, open to dialogue and cooperation.

c) Cultivation of Christian moral values ​​and promotion of cultural activities-

Community education, support for the development of local communities.

d) Mediation in some social charity and cultural-missionary campaigns.

e) The promotion of objectivity and respect for the principles of journalistic ethics

in the narration of events, in the presentation of persons and institutions.

f) Creating partnerships with media, cultural and educational institutions

in the country and abroad.

g) Promoting the dialogue of the Christian faith with philosophy, science, art and others

Areas of manifestation of the human spirit that create lasting value.

TRINITAS Radio, the oldest part of the press center

VASILIKI was founded in 1996 with initiative and blessing

Blessed Father Daniel, Patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church when he was

Metropolitan of Moldavia and Bukovina. The first program was broadcast in the evening

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Good Friday, April 17, 1998, from the studio near the Golija Monastery tower at

Iasi, on the frequency of 92.7 MHz.

Since 2004, a project has been started to expand the broadcast area of ​​the station

Radio TRINITAS auf regionaler Ebene (Vaslui, Moineşti, Bacău, Oneşti, Piatra Neamţ,

Putna, Suceava, Topliţa, Darabani) and since 2005. auf nationaler Ebene (Bucegi-Coștila,

Zalău, Bârlad, Ceahlău-Vf. Toaca, Hârlau, Botoşani, Haţeg, Neu-Moldawien, Harghita-

Gheorghieni, Baia Mare, Gura Humorului, Târgu Neamţ, Rădăuţi, Sibiu, Durău,

Galatians). It was added to it in September 2008 through a partnership with her Office

Radio "Logos" der Metropole Oltenien, 6 frequency: Craiova, Bechet, Băileşti, Novaci,

Târgu Carbunesti, Târgu Jiu. In December 2008, 2 more frequencies were acquired

Edition: Arad and Timisoara.

Radio TRINITAS currently has 34 terrestrial frequencies

operates and covers 85% of the Romanian territory, to which two frequencies have been added

via satellite, for Europe and America. Radio TRINITAS has been around since 2002

received worldwide via the Internet ( and

Radio TRINITAS Bucharest broadcast studio located in the palace

The Patriarchate was solemnly opened on October 27, 2007, fulfilling the word-

Program of Blessed Father Daniel, the day of the inauguration of the Patriarch of the Church

Romanian Orthodox (September 30, 2007): "Another desire of ours that becomes one."

The task is to intensify the spiritual mission of the Church in society beyond it

the walls of the church, through two networks of orthodox churches in the plain

national, that is: radio and television and the daily newspaper of the Church. in

In the spring of 2008, the local studio of Radio TRINITAS Iasi was moved from the tower

Goliei in the premises of the Episcopal Center of Iasi, consecrated by the Holy Father.

Patriarch Daniel, June 7, 2008.

Radio TRINITAS, the first Orthodox radio station established in our country, is here

represents the radio station of the Romanian Patriarchate and contributes to the support of the activities

Cultural missionary of the Romanian Orthodox Church in the country and abroad. Although a

It is a religious radio station whose broadcasts are not strictly religious

Discussions on the current problems of today's world, religion and culture dialogue,

Theology and science, education and respect for human dignity.

The studio was founded in 2009 in collaboration with the Archdiocese of Sibiu

productions from the city of Sibiu, which contributes to the activity of the studio

Bucharest, Iasi and Craiova. Radio TRINITAS has correspondents in the country and abroad

With 12 daily newscasts, it is the most important news channel

religious, cultural and social-administrative issues in the BASILICA press center.

Radio TRINITAS also maintains media partnerships with other stations

Orthodox radio station from Romania (Radio Renaissance-Cluj, Radio Reintregirea-Alba).

Iulia, Radio Dobrogea-Constanța, Radio Lumina-Drobeta Turnu Severin).

TRINITAS TV started its operation on October 27 in Bucharest

2007 with the establishment of the BAZILIK press center. Through this news

The Romanian Patriarchate uses media channels to inform the public through words and images

about church events, pastoral-missionary, social, educational and

Culture of the Church, which introduces the public to the history, culture and treasures of the Church

Romanian Christian faith and spirituality in the European context.

The motivations for creating this TV are as follows:

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1. Church television also makes it accessible to people to participate in church services

sick, bedridden or elderly.

2. TRINITAS TV projects the historical and cultural heritage of the Church

Orthodox, which contributes to its knowledge and appreciation at the national level and

European. In this way, the need for maintenance and restoration is respected


3. This TV station aims to cultivate spiritual beauty

which the Church expresses through images, liturgical objects, mass vestments, sacred vessels and plates

liturgical, bindings of precious metals or enamel, miniatures, iconostasis and

carved church furniture.

4. TRINITAS TV also needs to think more theologically and spiritually

various official moments in the life of religious communities and in political life (Dan

Heroes, national holidays, European events, aspects of community life

Romanians from abroad, cultural exchanges, etc.).

5. TRINITAS TV does not want competition, but cooperation with different authorities

central and local, as well as with other national and international television channels that have it

Goals that align with ours. We want to do more applications

the provisions of the law on cults, in which religious cults are recognized as partners

State social services (Law No. 489/2006 on religious freedom and public order).

cults, art. 7: "The Romanian state recognizes the spiritual, educational and social role of worship."

the philanthropic, cultural and social partnership and their position as agents of peace


The objectives of the missionary and cultural work of the television station are expressed as follows:

a) TRINITAS TV helps to intensify the Christian Orthodox experience.

b) In this context, TRINITAS TV supports the strengthening of human solidarity

a multi-religious, multi-ethnic and multicultural European.

c) TRINITAS TV brings Father Dr. through Orthodox religious broadcasts

a positive outlook on everyday events, illuminated by faith and hope


TRINITAS TV is currently available in approximately 85% of the market

Television distribution from Romania, more specifically through the RCS&RDS and UPC networks, via

digital platforms DIGI, DOLCE and BOOM, through medium and small cable TV networks

Cities and towns across the country. We can be received by satellite all over Europe

AMOS 2, receive frequency: 11649.750 MHz, polarity: horizontal (H), SR:

21,350 MSym/s, Modulation: QPSK, FEC: ¾.

The foundation stone was laid with the cooperation of Radio TRINITAS and TRINITAS TV

TRINITAS Records, which produces audio CDs of sacred music,

Sermons and sayings of the orthodox Christian doctrine and DVDs with movies

Documentaries about places, events and spiritual figures.

The written press is represented by three representatives at the central level of the Romanian Patriarchate

Publications: daily Ziarul Lumina, weekly and monthly Lumina de Dominică

The Herald of Orthodoxy was prepared by the same editor.

The Lumina newspaper has been in continuous circulation since February 7, 2005 and is the only one

Christian daily newspaper from Romania and at the same time the only Orthodox Christian daily newspaper in the world.

Lumina newspaper is important not only for its informative role, but also for this

"To shape the conscience of a current and socially active Christian who is also a son of the Church and..."

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Citizens of the country", said the blessed father Patriarch Danilo on the occasion of his birthday

two years after the publication of the newspaper. Sunday's weekly light appears continuously

from October 14, 2005.

With an ever-increasing circulation, the Lumi editions outsold the first sales

In the first half of 2010, the number was 25,000 subscriptions

the top five daily newspapers nationally, according to a self-compiled circulation ranking

Romanian Traffic Control Bureau (BRAT). This increase in traffic would not have happened

possible without the opening and unification of the three regional editions of Ziarul newspaper

Lumina, Moldovan edition with editorial office in Iași and Transylvania edition with editorial office

in Sibiu, the Oltenia edition with the edition in Craiova and the Banat edition with the edition in


The new website balances the online domain of Ziarul Lumina and publications

Sunday Light uses the latest web technology to optimize access

Readers, both in the articles in the current issue and in the archive currently available

almost 40,000 species. More than an up-to-date online news site

Every day, the new structure of the website presents itself as a platform that inside

At the same time, it can be extended almost indefinitely to enhance its status as a library

virtual, which makes fruitful learning available in the Church of the Holy Fathers, but also

Memories of the most important social events of our time.

BASILICA news agency's mission is to present in the form of news and news

Type documentation, institutions, activities and attitudes of the Orthodox Church

Romania, but also of other churches, in various current problems. option i

The establishment of the news is based on the principles of Christian ethics and in addition

rules of journalistic ethics. Official start of operations of the News Agency BAZILIKA s

which took place on Monday, June 16, 2008, on the feast of the Holy Trinity.

The news agency bases its work on the original call of the church

conveys to the world the good news of salvation in Christ. In a society dominated by them

communication, information overload, overproduction and the temptation of overconsumption,

Religious information reminds people that they can and can be better

happier, not just multiplying the volume of information, but multiplying the volume of information

informed judgment is required to understand how it is put together

in the discovery of the facts of life, the presence of divine grace and human freedom.

News and information will be published in electronic form on the website and contain information about church life in or from the country

abroad: activities and speeches of the Patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church,

decisions of the Holy Synod, activities of dioceses, monasteries and parishes, schools

theological and ecclesiastical associations, dialogue between Church and society, cooperation

orthodox, interfaith and interfaith dialogue.

Since the summer of 2010, the website has a new presentation format,

rich in information and with new possibilities to access photo, video and audio files

attached to the newsfeed. In collaboration with the information service of the Romanian Patriarchate, the Agency

The news is online with a link to the official website and others

Details of the VASILIKI Press Center.

Activities of the Press and Public Information Office, fifth section a

of the BASILICA type center can be summarized as follows:

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- Mediation in the work of the Holy Synod, blessed Patriarch Danilos,

The National Council of Churches and the National Assembly of Churches provide information on Church activities

Romanian Orthodox at the central level and, if necessary, on the spot in various fields of activity

(pastoral-missionary, social-philanthropic, educational, cultural, relations with other religions

Romania, external ecclesiastical and ecumenical relations, etc.).

- Track news, information, articles, comments and related shows

in the Romanian Orthodox Church and in national and international events

national, social, political, economic, cultural nature related to interests and

Church problems; Monitoring of the written form is achieved through the application

daily press and information of the blessed father Patriarch Daniel, a

To the reverend fathers, bishops, patriarchal vicars and all areas of administration

Patriarchate and Archdiocese of Bucharest.

- Establishing and maintaining contact with journalists accredited by news agencies

Romanian and foreign, national and private radio and television channels and a

17 daily newspapers of national importance, as well as other publications from the country and

abroad, press agencies, publications of international ecumenical bodies

face-to-face meetings, phone, fax and internet.

The BAZILIKE type center carries out its activities in all its elements

according to the founding program of the Blessed Father Patriarch as follows:

"The good news of God's saving and sanctifying love in human homes,

that men may seek the eternal love of God's house of which it is the porch

Holy Church".

Pastoral-cultural mission via radio

Monday, December 8, 2008

The words of Blessed Father Daniel, Patriarch of Romania, addressed to S

on the occasion of the awarding of the title of Doctor Honoris Causa at the "Aurel Vlaicu" University.

from Arad, Friday, December 5, 2008

History and evolution

The history of radio in Romania began with the "Our Father" prayer.

the first radio wave transmitted by a public radio station in 1928. At that time

It shows us the beliefs of the Romanian people who started radioactivity in Romania

with the Lord's prayer. Until the establishment of communism in our country

the transmission of the Divine Liturgy every Sunday through public radio no

was not on the schedule, which was a tradition that continued at the dawn of freedom after 1989

Among the public service programs there are also programs for Orthodox spirituality.

However, this help to the Church was not enough considering, for example,

There are several radio stations of the Orthodox Church in Greece and Europe

Other Western Christian denominations have actual national radio stations and


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After 1989, due to the increased presence of the Church in Romanian society, this did not happen again

it represented only a return to the natural tradition, which was destroyed by the communist regime

half a century, but also a response to the challenges of a transitional society at a crossroads

millennia. theological and religious education integrated into the national education system,

spiritual assistance provided to medical, military and social units

necessary expansion of church function in society. At the same time, his missionary presence

Orthodoxy in society was called to unify the responsibility for heritage

historically and artistically that she helped create over the centuries through her participation in the dialogue

a new culture, shaped by the pluralism of ideas, the market economy and the emergence of the masses

Media in today's human life. In this context, several Orthodox dioceses were eliminated

Romania paid more and more attention and tried for new social media

To include them in their mission and in their catechetical and pastoral work.

The first Orthodox radio station in Romania was founded in 1996

The Metropolitan Region of Moldova and Bukovina received from the National Council

Broadcast license no. R 216 of 9 July 1996. As a result of 17

April 1998, Good Friday of Holy Week, Radio TRINITAS from Iasi

started broadcasting.

Granting of a broadcasting license on the frequency 92.70 MHz in 1996 in the city of Iasi,

by the National Broadcasting Council represented a first in this field

Mass media because the Archdiocese of Iasi thus became the first ecclesiastical unit

Orthodox Christians who organized their own radio station. Two years followed in which

The editorial board was prepared and settled in the premises of the Goljački monastery

Radio TRINITAS Studios. The place made a lot of sense 70 years ago

After that, the first Hertzian wave emission tests from the Goliei tower were carried out

degree of Iasius.

The first broadcast of Radio TRINITAS was the service of Denia, from Sfada si

Good Friday thus defines the operational-missionary priority of the radio station

TRIAD. The initiative of the metropolis of Iasi was taken up in the national media landscape

with interest and enthusiasm. Since that moment, in the Romanian media landscape, a

a radio station broadcasting 24 church programs 24 hours a day,

cultural, missionary and educational, the spirit of the shows is Irish, but also religious and

Orthodox spirituality. The general principles of communication are based on

Dialogue and cooperation for the intensification and enrichment of the Christian life of society

Romanian and open to European and universal spiritual values. Year 2004, approx

The revered year "Stjepan Veliki i Sveti - 500" was the year of expansion of the broadcast area.

for Radio TRINITAS, its ministry or communication mission

Work in other dioceses of the Romanian Patriarchate.

Since 2004, Radio TRINITAS has been expanding regionally

national: Vaslui (April 2004), Moineşti (May 2004), Bacău (May 2004), Oneşti (June).

2004), Piatra Neamţ (June 2004), Brodina - Putna (July 2004), Suceava (July 2004),

Topliţa (July 2004), Darabani (October 2004), Bucegi - Coștila (February 2005), Zalău

(April 2005), Bârlad (June 2005), Bicaz - Vf. Toaca (June 2005), Hârlău (July

2005.), Botoşani (October 2005), Haţeg (July 2005), Vârful Moldoviţa – in der Nähe

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Neues Moldawien – Caraş-Severin (September 2005), Harghita – Gheorgheni (November).

2005), Baia Mare - Mogoşa (November 2005), Gura Humorului (December 2005),

Târgu Neamţ (April 2005), Rădăuţi (May 2006), Sibiu (October 2006), Durău

(February 2007), Galati (July 2007) and since October 2008 in Craiova, Băileşti,

Novaci, Tg. Jiu, Bechet, Tg. Carbuneşti taking over the frequencies of Radio LOGOS. in

Radio TRINITAS is currently broadcasting on 32 terrestrial audio-visual frequencies and

it covers 80% of the Romanian territory. Simultaneously with the date 24 June 2004 (holiday

The birth of Saint John the Baptist) You can watch Radio TRINITAS via satellite

in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa and from November 30, 2008

Saint Andrew the Apostle, patron saint of Romania, in North America. Apart from these

Broadcast means, from 31 December 2002, our radio station

it can also be obtained through the most modern means of communication via the Internet.

Radio TRINITAS has been and remains the organizer since the beginning of its broadcast

Dialogue and cooperation at the national and international level, commitment to defense and

promoting human dignity and redeeming man from his creation

the face of God, the eternally living (cf. Genesis 1:26-27), to live forever.

The National Council appreciates the programs of this radio station

Audiovisual awarded Radio TRINITAS with the best station award

Local radio in Romania for 2003. Also received Radio TRINITAS

from the Metropolitan Region of Moldova and Bukovina, 10 June 2006, diploma

Orthodox Apostolate - Excellence in mission, for special contribution to outreach

Orthodox mission through radio programs. At the same time, on the evening of October 14

In 2006, the TRINITAS radio station was awarded at the celebrations in Iasi

The Pogor Award "for service to the community through religion and culture", the largest

Proof of gratitude from the municipality of Iasi for those who prevailed in the nomination

culture and service to man.

Due to European openness and the promotion of authentic cultural values

Christians, Radio TRINITAS is not only known in Romania, but also has connections with Romania

Cooperation with several radio stations of our continent in the fall of the year

2001. Member of the Conference of Christian Radios in Europe (Lyon, France),

along with other renowned European media institutions. I attend meetings

The European Christian Radio Conference was inspired by the existing model in Italy,

France, Spain and Portugal to create a wireless church network

National level. As part of promoting dialogue with other Christian churches, the radio

From September 28 to October 1, 2006, TRINITAS was hosted in Iași

13th conference of the Conference of Christian Radios in Europe on the theme "Role".

Christian radio stations transmit Christian values ​​to new generations.

Since April 17, 1998, Radio TRINITAS has been an integral part of the cultural institute.

TRINITAS Missionary of the Metropolitan Region of Moldova and Bukovina until April 27

October 2007 (festival of Saint Demetrius the Younger) when he was incorporated into

Press Center of the BASILICA of the Romanian Patriarchate, together with the opening of the studio

broadcast by Radio TRINITAS of Bucharest, from the Patriarchal Palace.

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On April 17, 2008, 10 years of continuous broadcasting were completed

Radio TRINITAS, a moment celebrated with a service at the Patriarchal Cathedral

Te Deum also in the Europa Christian hall of the Patriarchal Palace.

On June 7, 2008, the local studio of Radio TRINITAS Iasi was moved from the tower

Goliei in the premises of the Episcopal Center of Iasi, near the "Dumitru Stăniloae" library,

It was founded in 1995.

From the end of September 2008, Radio TRINITAS took over the radio station

Logos of the Archdiocese of Craiova, which became the Logos Studio Office

Radio TRINITAS from Craiova combines studios in Bucharest and Iași.

Radio TRINITAS is currently the radio station of the Romanian Patriarchate and contributes to it

Supporting the cultural missionary activities of the Romanian Orthodox Church.

Since November 17, 2008, Radio TRINITAS has been broadcasting 24 hours a day with three stations.

his studios in Bucharest, Iasi and Craiova. Arad and Timiş counties have not yet

covered by the TRINITAS radio frequency network, but hopefully in the near future

this defect will be removed.

Identity and missionary activity of Radio TRINITAS

Radio TRINITAS is today the most important Christian radio station in Romania. the rest

Orthodox Radio Sind: Renaissance - in Cluj-Napoca, Reentregirea - in Alba-

Iulia, Dobrogea - in Constanta and Orthodoxia - in Brasov, the latter is divided

but the frequency with the evangelical radio station Voice of Hope.

The identity of Christian Orthodox Radio lies in the promotion of the Orthodox faith,

Supporting moral and religious education, promoting Christian culture and the media

social charitable activity of the Orthodox Church.

Therefore, it is the first value to be defended and nurtured as a Christian community

the truth of the Orthodox faith in the context of today's reality. The truth of faith

communicated or shared have the power of sanctification. A sign that in a person

The Holy Spirit is present, it is his love for truth and justice. The Holy Spirit

he dwelleth not in a liar, and dwelleth not in the unrighteous. All Scripture and

Particularly wise books show that hunger and thirst for truth and justice are signs

the action of the Holy Spirit in man (cf. Matt. 5,6).

Another great value that must be defended and nurtured is the sanctity of life, i.e. the sanctity of man

Human, family, friendly and peace among people. Therefore, at this time

There are many mass media that feed selfish passions and violence

guilty. They contribute to the degradation of the individual and human life.

The third fundamental value to be defended and nurtured is dignity

face. Man, created in the image of the Divine Person, should not do this

it never boils down to objective value, commerce or political ideology because

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The soul of a man is more precious than the whole world, than all earthly goods,

but all known and unknown galaxies together. Of course together with dignity

The individual's responsibility towards man must also be promoted. Free

Responsibility has no full dignity.

A true Christian communicator must be very careful - he must not communicate

something and someone other than the gospel of Christ and Christ himself. Saints

The Apostle Paul teaches us that we should not preach ourselves but Jesus

Christ (cf. 1 Corinthians 4:5). It is the apostolic consciousness of communication

truth of belief.

A Christian communicator must first of all know that he emits light,

The Gospel and the spirit of Christ, no ideology, no human doctrine

just busy. Otherwise, his announcement will no longer become a sanctification, but

There is a risk of narcissistic or individualistic communication.

In religious media communication, we must discern, choose, and adapt

creative way, what corresponds to the content of the Orthodox faith, how to what

it refers to both the word and the image, because not every word, not all

The image is apt to convey the living truth of the gospel. we need one

technical professionalism is doubled by spiritual theological prophecies rather than mimicry

Secularization. We are often tempted to imitate the worldly, but we must not imitate too much

almost everything that others produce, but let's selectively take only the good ones and move on

It is a selfish, self-sufficient spirit by which the state of divine communion can be attained

God and people. The world of sin is the world of self-sufficiency, arrogance and

greed, but the world of holiness is the world of the community and of that with which it is not connected

God is not saved, which means he does not receive eternal life. Saint Gregory

The theologian tells us that "only he who is united with God will be saved." is

definition of salvation. He who unites with God and separates is saved

God loses salvation, that is, he loses eternal life or the community of saints.

The first attribute of a Christian communicator, whether through print or radio, or

Through television, this is a mature belief. If he does not have mature faith, he cannot

conveys the essence of the gospel. Mature faith is not only based on knowledge, but

and about experience, about church life in the community of saints. Solid culture is represented

another attribute of the media's orthodox missionary. It means words

easier, improvement, no improvisation. We need a permanently solid culture

for we can never say we have enough culture, but we need it

constant cultivation of Christian faith and general culture through prayer and

study, through information and experience. The third quality of the communicator is

maintain professional dynamic communication. There are people who know a lot

things, but I can't communicate everything I know. The Holy Father said of them: “What?

Using hidden treasures and a scholar who cannot share his knowledge

Others;" Indeed, to be able to convey lasting values ​​through living language and language is a great gift

through writing. This gift is sought and cultivated with constant updating and constant effort,

through lively desire and dynamic endurance. On the other hand, the one who uses Christian radio

they must cultivate different discernment in order to recognize the value of community

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and profit from commercialization. When we communicate messages and images for commercial purposes,

The greatest test begins. If it's all sales and marketing, then yes

There is very little room to prioritize the community and culture of souls. Next to

In distinguishing between community and commodification, we must also distinguish between ideal and commodification

selfish passion. Not every selfish passion is a true ideal. the difference between

Ideal and passion are necessary, though very difficult to achieve. Holy Fathers of the Church

I say that the temptation of sin is often a veil of light and beauty

artificial reality, and the fall then creates a sense in man that it was so

deceived. We must distinguish between the ideal and the selfish passion, because when the ideal becomes

Selfish passion is no longer a sacred ideal, but an ideology of power and possession, whether personal,

it was collective.

Spiritual meanings and pastoral benefits in radio missions

Since it started broadcasting, Radio TRINITAS has rightfully established itself

a missionary vehicle that spreads the Word of God

pulpit of the Church in society.

Since April 17, 1998, TRINITA listeners can listen to the Divine Liturgy, Vespers,

This is the morning and evening prayer, the akathis of the day, the rosary

The Church's central media channel has been offering beauty and wealth every day for 10 years

the spiritual message of the liturgical message of our Romanian Orthodoxy.

Radio TRINITAS is aimed at all categories of listeners. program network

Radio TRINITAS is organized in such a way that it broadcasts and has a program around the clock

organizes in: religious education programs, special religious education programs, from

Romanian folklore and classical music, programs that carry events

Church, news and useful information, dialogues and discussions on current issues

social and cultural life in Romania and abroad.

The programs offered by Radio TRINITAS meet the requirements of the majority of the population

Orthodox Christians from our country to listen to the broadcasts of our radio station. In this context

We also welcome the expansion of Radio TRINITAS in the region

Arad and Timiș counties for the following reasons:

a) Intensification of the spiritual activities of the Church and training in spiritual formation

permanently by different generations of believers:

Because of the beneficial spiritual role the Church has always played in society

he has the duty to proclaim the word of the gospel and to nourish it in the souls of the faithful

Faith, hope and love. In dialogue with today's scientific and technical modernity

In our church the message of the church is "Community Communication" and it comes from

realization that human fulfillment cannot be achieved without the cultivation of dimension

spiritual aspects of existence.

b) Promotion of Romanian Christian culture in a multicultural and pluralistic context

modern society:

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At the beginning of the 3rd millennium, Romanian culture and traditions were often transmitted

secondary plan due to the aggressive infiltration of some foreign cultural products

in various meridians, many of dubious quality. One of

Our constant concern is to ensure access to the widest possible audience

fundamental values ​​created by our ancestors that are preserved in the spiritual treasury,

cultural and folklore or in cultured creations of literature and art. At the same time we want to offer

for the Romanian public and masterpieces of world culture, Christian inspiration and

deeply human.

c) Communication deacon and involvement in social charity activities:

The programs under the umbrella term "Church and Society" are already integral elements

Permanent broadcasts of Radio TRINITAS. development of social activities

Ecclesiastical charity involves the cultivation of a consciousness of service and sacrifice

for all believers and has the gift of raising the new generation with a spirit of respect

for work and social solidarity.

At the same time for people who are in the hospital or not for various reasons

I can come to church, broadcasting services is the right thing to do

A blessing, a joy shared by the healthy and the afflicted.

d) Providing an intellectual alternative in a media space dominated by strategy

purely commercial radio stations:

In a society that strongly values ​​the value of freedom, it is our duty to provide it

for an audience listening to an alternative to creative, soul-building cultural programming

cohesion and dignified cooperation.

For this reason we consider both episcopal cities of Arad as the closest

an old Orthodox monastic center in Romania (Hodoş-Bodrog monastery from

1177) as well as Timisoara, a metropolis with an old Byzantine Christian history, must visit

Also receive the radio station TRINITAS of the Romanian Patriarchate.

We hope that this idea of ​​ours will become a reality with the decision of the National Council

Audio-visual, for which I have already applied for two transmission frequencies for cities

Arad and Timisoara to be able to receive the radio station of the TRINITA Patriarchate


The central program of Radio Trinitas - Good news for the salvation of love

For everything good, beautiful and useful in the programs of this first post from

Christian Orthodox Radio from Romania, we thank God and all the people who do this

They understood us and supported us spiritually and materially in trying to get closer

The Church of the people and the people of the Church to evangelize the love of God

towards people and nurture people's love for God. By that definition,

The various advantages of the TRINITAS radio can be summarized in three directions


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1. It contributes to a better knowledge of the value and beauty of the Orthodox faith,

if it is experienced as light and joy in the Church, family and society

To live in the presence of God's love.

2. Radio TRINITAS promotes Orthodox communion between dioceses, parishes, monasteries,

theological schools, cultural and social institutions of the Church, within society

Romania, but also a spiritual connection with Orthodox Romanians through the Internet


3. Radio TRINITAS contributes to the preservation and promotion of identity and spirituality

Orthodox Christians and Romanians in relation to other churches and peoples in the European context,

Give your spiritual experience to others and learn from them what is practical


Of course, we always have something to improve in the overall activity of the radio station

TRINITAS, but the greatest joy is receiving the joy and peace it brings

The radio station brings them into the souls and homes of its listeners while they are still in society

great material poverty, loneliness, insecurity and the relative desire for communication

honest and brotherly fellowship. How much individualism and pursuit of material gain

As it intensifies, the need for an authentic community i

permanent spiritual values.

In the financial market everything is bought and sold, but in the spiritual life everything is like this

they take and give themselves, mainly to lay up spiritual treasure in our souls, no

only material treasures around us, eager to be loved and to love eternally in the light

and the love of the Holy Trinity. This partly explains why Radio TRINITAS

often presented as “radio for your soul”, “radio for

your soul' or 'radio on the frequency of your soul'.

The light emitted by TRINITY radio is contained in the gospel and

prayer, in liturgy and charity, in true faith and living Christian culture

the grace of God's merciful love as a foretaste and preparation for reception

eternal light of the Kingdom of the Holy Trinity.

In this sense, the central program of Radio TRINITAS is one

Evangelize God's saving and sanctifying love in people's homes, e.g

that men may seek the house of eternal love of God the Father, whose porch it is

holy temple.

Radio TRINITAS belongs to the Church and to every listener. Through,

Everyone's soul becomes a Church, that is, gathering in the holy, brotherly love, but also

the communion of the love of Christ and the Holy Trinity. In this spiritual context

mass media is turning into an environment for man to meet God. wavy

Radio waves transmit religious messages and information technology supports theology and work

missionary of the church. But artificially created technology remains neutral as an object

The message that man sends through them can sanctify or defile them. Like him

imparts holy words, songs and holy prayers encouraging a holy life and

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Good works, the radio station receives blessings from God and gratitude from

to the people.

Finally, we would like to thank all the university professors who supported us

supports the Church's cultural and missionary work through print media, radio and television.

† DANIEL, Patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church

Send by picture and word

Tuesday, December 9, 2008

The words of Blessed Father Daniel, Patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church,

on the occasion of the conferment of the Doctor Honoris Causa title of the university

Vest "Vasile Goldiş" from Arad, Saturday 6 December 2008

TRINITAS TV of the Romanian Patriarchate was founded in October 2007.

On the one hand, it was a response to an immediate emergency, namely institutional development

mass communication of the church, and on the other hand it was the result of desire

Believers in Romania must have church television. innumerable many

The listeners of the TRINITAS radio station called for the creation of the station by

A television that would visually transmit what the radio broadcasts on the street

Waves: a message of peace and solidarity, accurate information and free from obsessions

An ad for a shocking, friendly and warm word for singles or


Theological and missionary motivations for the creation of the Television of the Romanian Patriarchate

1. Orthodox Christianity is a religious faith realized to its fullest potential

optical. When they meet Christ-Messiah, people argue

Statements through visuals, not just audio. So in the first chapter of the gospel

According to John, we read that Philip simply invites Nathanael to meet Jesus

Nazareth, the incarnate Son of God: "Come and see!" (John 1:46). letter I a

the same evangelist John emphasizes the spiritual values ​​of the visible: "What I have".

What we have seen and heard, we also announce to you that you too can associate with us. And the community

ours is with the Father and with his Son Jesus Christ" (1 John 1:3).

The icon played a role in world culture, as well as in the pedagogy of the holy fathers of the Church

always a key role. In cultural history, we recognize a metaphorical expression

human emotions, ranging from the highest experiences of the mind to the highest

usual, since the walls are the caves where our ancestors lived. In the millennia since then

The subsequent artistic improvement, fixing the image on the support, was

always primarily a method of capturing a face or person

facts, that is, the struggle with ignorance and forgetfulness, and secondly, a means

timeless communication. The same double reflex, also in maintenance form

Intangible, personal and historical realities also led to the discovery of modern media

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save Image. Among them is television, which is also captivating

The medium is an image on magnetic or digital media and real-time communication

charming. Television is a medium that broadcasts locally to the world and has a large

The advantage is that it conveys information much more objectively than other media

journalistic and therefore enjoys a very high status.

In the teaching of the great theologians of the Church, icons (i.e. stylized icons and

the transformation of a holy person or an event from the history of salvation).

A window to heaven and a visual expression of faith. Beyond the purely aesthetic motivation

Places of worship are decorated with images as a sign of faithfulness to the message

Gospel. The followers of the apostle recognized that the image conveys its content

informative (and of course formative) immediately and fully, even

those with weaker mental training. It contains information by itself

(monument) and beauty, especially the appeal to the spiritual community, ecclesiastical painting

It was, in a way, an anticipation of modern means of communication that would be their own

With its iconic precision and sacred aesthetics, identity evokes the mystery of presence

divine grace and invokes the saints.

2. The church television is necessary for participation in the divine liturgy

Function for people who do not move and for encouragement

for lonely and helpless people.

Participation in the sacred liturgy is not complete without a visual component. Fact

that Radio TRINITAS, the radio station of the Romanian Patriarchate, broadcasts daily services

The church is a very good thing, but it is somewhat incomplete.

Liturgical ceremonies, church paintings, aesthetics of cult objects, everything

They also require a visual reflection of worship in the Orthodox Church - which is possible

is exclusively on television. On the other hand, church events

to the real extent they only reflect the cameras that

which was seen, for example, at this year's celebration of Saint Demetrius the New,

patron of Bucharest.

3. The television of the Romanian Patriarchate wants to highlight the vastness

cultural heritage created by the Church.

The historical and cultural heritage of the Orthodox Church and the saint is impressive

The parts that make it up stand out for their iconography, architecture and wealth

liturgical vessels and other antique objects created for worship through the Treasuries

they are preserved in episcopal, monastic and parish museums. All these make one

Romanian cultural figure recognized at European and global level, which should be highlighted

systematically and sustainably increasing value.

Advertising the richness of the Romanian cultural and ecclesiastical heritage, TV

TRINITAS also promotes public education in knowledge and appreciation

Works of true intellectual and cultural value. This fact is final

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the awareness of priests and believers about the need for maintenance and restoration

monuments and objects of cultural heritage.

4. This TV channel aims to nurture spiritual beauty through upliftment

or the mutation from built to unbuilt beauty, from physical vision to vision


The Church proclaims spiritual beauty with images, liturgical objects, clothes and dishes

liturgical, bindings of precious metals or enamel, miniatures, iconostasis and

carved church furniture. The Orthodox Church often uses inspired aesthetics

of the Christian faith, as a means of spiritual elevation, but also because it has a direct effect

Impact on morality: caring for sacred beauty can be a boost to success

Good; A man is truly beautiful when he has a good soul.

On the other hand, it is easy to see the tendency of today's world to be cautious

Things that fascinate with their brilliance, but in reality are inconsistent and

perishable. TRINITAS TV gives importance to the fleeting beauty it should

That is why it is valued as a gift from the Creator and soothes the soul to its core

the beauty of the soul's peace and joy in communion with God.

5. TRINITAS TV also needs to think more theologically and spiritually

various solemn moments in the life of religious communities and in political life.

At a time when values ​​are being diluted, the events of the Romanian people are symbolic

One must live them solemnly and with gratitude. TRINITAS TV is paying attention

especially on Heroes' Day, Romania's national holiday, but also for European events

deep meanings. The television of the Romanian Patriarchate presents aspects of life

Romanian communities abroad and gives priority to promoted talents

by Romanians from different countries of the world.

6. TRINITY Television does not want to compete, it wants to cooperate with television

At the national level, with the Ministry of Culture and Education, with the Ministry of Education, Science and Education

of young people, with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, with the Croatian Tourist Board and others

other national and international TV stations whose goals are the same as ours.

We would like to further implement the provisions of the Kultusgesetz

Cults are recognized as social partners of the state (Law 489/2006 approx

Freedom of religion and general status of worship, Art. 7: "The Romanian State recognizes

spiritual, educational, social, charitable, cultural and social cooperative role of sects,

and their status as agents of social peace").

Therefore, the establishment of TRINITA TV was an indisputable necessity. From

In addition, TRINITAS Television is considered a cooperative institution of the media and

Contribution of the radio station TRINITAS of the Romanian Patriarchate.

Recent activity of TRINITAS Television

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TRINITAS TV broadcasts 16 hours a day, between 9 a.m. and 1 a.m

Night. The program is very diverse and has two main foundations

Daily live broadcasts: Holy Liturgy and Vespers.

The daily live broadcast of the Holy Liturgy and Vespers is provided by a

a new form of service provided by the Church through TRINITAS TV

to people who due to illness, age, long distance or a

Problems that affect the natural progression of life, they cannot always participate,

during the church service.

In addition, in important events in the life of the Romanian Orthodox Church,

Romanian Patriarchate TV broadcasts full live broadcasts. Most

Important moments of this kind were: the celebration of Saint Demetrius

Nou, patron saint of Bucharest, 600 years since its foundation

Roman dioceses, enthronement of new archbishops on the throne of the metropolis

Craiova and Iasi. Via TRINITAS TV in live broadcasts on

Those moments, the events themselves, were experienced nationally and captured the attention of those who saw them.

The screens become participants in the joy of the physically present


The magazine highlights and reflects the dynamism of the life of the Romanian Orthodox Church

TRINITAS, so far the only religious television newspaper in Romania. From

major events organized in the Romanian Patriarchate, even episcopal initiatives and

Parishes from all over the country, the camera records actions visually, but also

the motivation of those who organize them and the result they produce. TRINITAS magazine shows how much

The Romanian Orthodox Church is alive, present and active. Displayed information

They reproduce the activities of the bishops and the dynamics of parish life in the country and abroad

the country, as well as the life of the monastery.

A show that presents asylums in Romania and around the world

called Pilgrim's Steps. It draws the viewer's attention to spiritual beauty

places of worship, silence of prayers in orthodox monasteries, paths that

it leads to those places that open the doors of the soul. It offers a visual path,

which always ends with a spiritual revelation. Each show is one

a description, but at the same time an invitation to a pilgrimage, in search of holiness.

The presented monasteries and churches come from all over the country. The intent of the creators

is to provide brief and understandable information about the history of the holy place, but

In addition, information is provided about the spiritual life of a particular monastery or parish. On

In short, this performance outlines a map of the spiritual treasures of Orthodoxy.

Dedicated to a charitable gesture inspired by the love of the Holy Trinity.

The Light of Good Deeds show presents humanitarian gestures and a

social welfare organizations and charities organized by the church. Target

The aim of this presentation is to bring to the fore those people who are

The help offered brightens the lives of people facing difficulties. Another stated purpose

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The purpose of the project is to show social cases with the desire to build a bridge

visible between those who need help and those who can provide it.

In the summer of 2008, a series of shows were recorded with her

the dramatic situation of the flood victims with the aim of raising awareness among our public

to help victims.

The program in which the case was presented raised an exciting amount

Disorder in a sick child that required immediate surgery.

Particularly instructive is the show in which a young man is invited to the studio

who was a drug addict and recounted the traumatic experiences he had

past, but he overcame it thanks to the help of others.

Calea Credinţei Show is a program that helps to understand the meaning of gestures

liturgical, for the meaning of the text of the liturgy, for the symbolism of the objects and vestments

operating. This shows how important it is to double the experience of faith with understanding

those committed in the sacred space of the Orthodox Church.

The Cale broadcast supports the teaching activity of the ministers of the holy altar

Faith proposes a visual catechism dedicated to the correct understanding of the relationships between people

the doctrine of faith and its liturgical presentation. Invitation of a Parliamentary Mission a

Calea Credinţei supports the Church through the encounter between the image and the approved commentary

professors of theology who understand the details that make up the complex picture

Functions that reveal the depth of direct participation in the Mystery

liturgically, in the meeting with God.

The daily conversation about the Church today puts into perspective the relationship between church and congregation

Society. It shows how and to what extent the Church faces the current challenges of society

It is present in the everyday life of the city it manages.

Public figures and experts are often invited to this show

in the various areas discussed. Here are some of the topics covered in the last part

Period: urban planning and heritage. Pilgrimage and discovery of God.

pastoral care in Roma communities; the practice and discipline of reading today.

Prison, room of penance, etc.

Although a priest is always present in the performance, lay people also participate as guests

It is highly appreciated by our TV viewers.

Apparently, this is not the case with the advertising content of the TRINITAS TV program

it is a purely religious issue, but it is also the way to approach all issues

a christian.

All programs aim, in a world characterized by secularization,

the spiritual mission of the church to preach the gospel of Christ through the message

updated, available to the general public.

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download methods. Echoes, program network

TRINITAS TV can currently be taken in about 70% of the market

Television distribution in Romania, more specifically through the entire RCS&RDS network

digital platforms DIGI, DOLCE and BOOM through medium and small cable TV networks

from cities and communities across the country and on UPC's digital cable network. in

In the coming days the UPC company will completely take over TRINITAS TV

analogue cable TV network across the country, which will mean coverage from

about 95% of all TV subscribers in Romania.

In addition, TRINITAS TV can be received anywhere in the country

to most of Europe directly from the AMOS 2 satellite.

There are already many Romanians from all over Europe who receive television

TRINITAS receives via satellite and we really appreciate that you can watch it in a special way

Orthodox services and broadcasts of important church events. his indoctrination

who receive information about spiritual life through TRINITAS broadcasts

Large and small churches across the country have the gift of bringing them even closer

homeland and to give them hope of returning to the homeland, in a somewhat difficult context

from an economic point of view, but alive and dynamic from a spiritual point of view.

Faithful TV viewers of the Romanian Patriarchate often encourage us to do so

Letters, phones, emails or directly to TV editors if they do

Meet on the street or at church. So we understand that the audience of TV TRINITAS

is noticeable. The live shows are the most watched, but also the most appreciated

There are also discussions involving representatives of society: experts from

from the field of education and culture, scientists, workers

Charitable organizations, representatives of Romanian state bodies explaining social problems

different perspectives.

We congratulate and bless all those who supported and supported the work of television

TRINITAS from the Romanian Patriarchate, with the belief that the work of Christian television

Orthodoxy is a necessary and useful thing that helps strengthen faith

emphasizing Romanian cultural and functional values ​​and strengthening the community

spiritually between generations and between different regions of Romania. Especially

We thank university staff from across the country who contribute to the affirmation of values

Orthodoxy and Romanian spirituality in the national and international context.

† Daniel,

Patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church

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The establishment of the Romanian Orthodox diaspora took place in several different phases

several waves of immigration, particularly in the early 20th century and

after the second world war.

Romanian intellectuals, students, diplomats, businessmen, merchants

Romanians settled temporarily or permanently in major European metropolises. To

At the end of the 19th century, a significant Romanian community lived here

Vienna, which founded its own chapel in 1906, was consecrated on January 8, 1907.

and this still works. In 1853 a chapel was built

Romanian in Paris, and in 1882 the Romanian government bought the church

It belonged to the Dominican friars in the Latin Quarter. They have Romanian chapels

existed in Lemberg or Leipzig and the site in the 19th century

Baden-Baden of West Germany, former ruler of Moldavia, Michael

Sturdza (1835-1848) will build the chapel from 1882 between 1864 and 1866.

under the normal jurisdiction of the Metropolitan Region of Moldova.

Based on the changes after WWI, but also

They arose due to the migration of a part of the Orthodox Romanians to America and Canada

numerous Romanian Orthodox communities in foreign cities.

Romania's transition into the Soviet sphere of influence, beginning on the 23rd

August 1944 had numerous negative consequences. He is among them

also responsible for the increase in political and cultural migration to the West,

who chose France as their main tourist destination, clustering around home

Romanians from Paris. During the communist regime, there were tens of thousands of families

left the country and settled in Western Europe or other regions of the world,

where they contributed to the establishment of new Romanian Orthodox communities.

Romanian Orthodox Diaspora in Europe

In the period between the two world wars, Romanian communities appeared

from Vienna, Paris and Baden-Baden continued their work. With these

In 1840 the Romanian community of Berlin was added. In August 1943 this

buys an evangelical church on Jerusalemstrasse in the city center,

along with a priest's residence, an office building and a museum. to take

The service was held on January 24, 1944, but on March 2, 1945, the church was closed.

destroyed by bombing. After the war all the buildings were demolished

was bombed and the neighborhood took on a different look.

After the Second World War and the establishment of the communist regime in

Romania is the link between the Mother Church and the communities in the West

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abort. The task is to organize the religious life of Orthodox Romanians

Western Europe is taken over by Metropolitan Visarion Puiu, former Metropolitan

from Bukovina (1935–1940) and Transnistria (1942–1944), sentenced to death.

absent from National Court in 1946;

In 1949 he founded the Romanian Orthodox Diocese for Europe

Paris-based Occidental. His plan was to organize the Romanians

outside the country in a metropolis governed by an autonomous metropolitan synod. in

In 1954 Archim was ordained a priest. Teofil Ionescu, diocesan vicar. They did it from the diocese

Romanian communities from France, Germany, Sweden, Belgium, England and

You have.

In 1958, Visarion Puiu retired due to intrigues and management

Teofil Ionescu takes over the leadership of the diocese. He was interested in the spiritual life of St

Believers ordained priests, organized pilgrimages, printed bulletins

Metropolis, participated in various ecumenical gatherings. However, the Romanian diaspora

remained divided into various jurisdictions (Ecumenical Patriarchate, BOR,

Russian session abroad).

In 1972, Bishop Teofil asked Patriarch Justinian to be admitted

listen to BOR. The Synod approves and gives autonomy to the metropolis. In 1974

Bishop Theophilus is elevated to the rank of archbishop and his diocese is

Romanian Orthodox Archdiocese of Central and Western Europe.

Archimandrite Lucianos Florea was elected episcopal vicar in 1974. Archbishop

Theophilus dies on 9 May 1975 and is succeeded as deputy

Bishop Lucian, from 1975 to 1980, later Archbishop Tomiš. On July 16

In 1980, the Episcopal vicar Adrian Hriţcu was sent to Paris. This will be the first

Archbishop MP, archbishop since 1982. He will lead the archdiocese until

In 1992, when he retired from the business.

The last decade of the 20th century and its first decade

In the 21st century, the Romanian Orthodox diaspora will grow in number and continue to grow

better organized.

In 1994, the Romanian Orthodox Metropolis for Europe was founded

Central (North added in 2003) led by I.P.S. metropolitan

seraphim. In Paris, in 1997, he was appointed Archbishop of the IPS. the chosen. Iosif Pop, since 2001

the archdiocese becomes a metropolis.

There are currently two Romanian Orthodox dioceses in Europe

The West (France and Germany), with suffragan dioceses in Italy, Spain and

Portugal to Scandinavia.


Metropolis of Paris:


Metropolis in Germany:

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DEISIS, a publication on spirituality and culture, in Romanian and German.

Spiritual Letter, Church Newsletter. Many parishes

currently publishes community newsletters, brochures and websites.

In the sixties of the last century, the journal of the Romanian Orthodox Church and House was published

Romanians from Paris. The initial periodicity should be monthly. They are later

published several numbers or there were breaks, some so large that

the performance was made annual. The magazine was published under the title Župni bulletin

in the Romanian Orthodox Church in Paris in January 1960 and thereafter

Name respectively: Romanian Orthodox Church in Paris (1963), Saints

Archangel (1963-1966).

The Vestitorul, a religious and moral publication, also appeared in France

missionary archdiocese of Paris and calendar

Calendar of Istomenis, the Herald.

The Romanian Orthodox Church in Vienna was founded in 1907 and has existed since 1962.

the annual ALMANAH and since 1972 the magazine LUCEAFĂR NOU.

In Great Britain, the church, founded in London in 1964, publishes

das ALTARUL-Bulletin und der Almanach.

Magazines published by parishes in the 1970s


Hamburg, 1975: NOTHING

Offenbach, 1975: THE CHRISTIAN LIFE

Munich, 1976: RENAISSANCE

Salzgitter, 1976: THE GOOD SHEPHERD


Stockholm, 1971.: KANDELA


Switzerland: Churches established in Geneva (1975) and Lausanne (1982).

They edited the newspaper IVIEREA


Milan, 1975: ROMAN CHURCH



Belgium, Brussels, 1978.: ROMANIA LAND

The Netherlands, The Hague, 1981: ORTHODOX MARTYRDOM

All were published in Romanian, but included summaries

in the languages ​​of the countries where they appeared.

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Romanian diaspora from America and Canada

This is what the Congress of Orthodox Romanians in America decided in 1929

established a mission diocese. He received the approval of the Holy Synod of BOR and in

From 1935 to 1939, he served as head of the mission diocese

Romanian Orthodox Bishop from America, Policarp Moruşca.

For this reason, when he returned to the country in 1939, he could not return to America

outbreak of war. After the war, the new government left

of Romania, which retired him in 1948. Diocese of Romania

Americans was founded by the Episcopal Council led by the father of Dr. Šimuna

Mihălţan, born in 1947., brother of Ioan Truţa.

The church convention in Detroit in 1947 called for full autonomy

against the Romanian Patriarchate and rejected the attempt of the Holy Synod of Bucharest

sends Bishop Antim Nice to America.

A group of 8 priests decided to create an autonomous diocese in 1950.

under the jurisdiction of the Romanian Patriarchate. They chose the widowed priest Andrei

of Moldova and requested the recognition of the Holy Synod of Bucharest. it was

recognized, monk in Mrea Neamt and ordained bishop in Sibiu on 12. XI.

in 1950.

Not all Romanian priests in America recognized the new bishop.

so that it functioned alongside his diocese in the northern continent

The American Orthodox Diocese in America, of which Polycarp is considered a bishop


The diocese headed by Andrej Moldovan increased the number of parishes

in the USA and Canada, where he carried out a rich missionary activity. After death

Andrej Moldovan (1963), the Council of Bishops in 1966 elects archim.

Victorin Ursachi, former head of the Romanian settlement in the Holy Land,

then priest and teacher in a theological seminary in America. He was ordained a bishop

7 Aug 1966, crowned 21 Aug 1966 in Windsor, Ontario

In 1973 the Holy Synod gave him the rank of archbishop. He worked as a shepherd until

2001 when he retired. The number of churches increased (10 in the US, 20 in

Canada, the largest of which are located in New York, Cincinnati, Cleveland,

Philadelphia, Wisconsin, Los Angeles and SAD-u, Boian, Edmonton, Winnipeg,

Hamilton, Ottawa, Windsor, Montreal in Canada. Archbishop since 2002

The Romanian Orthodox Church of the Two Americas is the I.P.S. Nikolaos Condrea.

The conference of the second diocese of Romania elected Fr.

Viorel (Valerian) Trifa, ordained a bishop by the archbishop of Philadelphia in 1952.

which depended on the Ukrainian Orthodox Metropolis of America. After

After the death of Polycarp Moruska (1958), Valerian was considered bishop

Diocese of Romania USA and Canada. In 1960 it came under jurisdiction

the Russian Orthodox metropolis in America and since 1970 in an autocephalous structure

OCA (Orthodox Church in America), along with Russians, Bulgarians and Albanians, with

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the right to respect for administrative autonomy, functional language and tradition

national and the right of the episcopal conference to elect future bishops.

Bishop Valerian completely renovated the buildings in Vatra Românească and a

organized missionary activities. In 1980, bishop-vicar Nathanael Pop was elected.

After retirement he assumed the leadership of the diocese in 1984


The Diocese of Detroit publishes the magazine Solia (Messenger), which is published

bimonthly since 1936. Annual, public episcopal and calendar

SOLIA almanac.

The Romanian Orthodox Missionary Archdiocese of America announces

bilingual monthly CREDINŢA (The Faith Magazine), Almanac

FAITH and the ROAA Bilten.

Among Romanian-language and Romanian-language magazines published by American communities

English, let's go: Romanian Canadian Herald, edition of "Sfinții" municipality.

Apostles Peter and Paul” από Kitchener, Ontario, Canada, Truth, Bulletin of

Romanian Orthodox Thought and Sentiments published by the Parish of the Resurrection.

of the Lord" in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Romanian Orthodoxy in Australia and New Zealand

Until the establishment of the Romanian Orthodox diocese in Australia and New Zealand

Zeelandă (2008) there were several parishes in several large cities

this area.

The Romanian Orthodox Church of the Holy Apostles Peter is located in Melbourne, Australia.

and Pavel" was published by Altarul strábun magazine, Adelaide Congregation, 1970.

the Crainicul Bulletin and Parish Life appeared in Sydney.

The ancient altar, in the new series, became the official version in 2008


Publications of the representative offices of the Romanian Patriarchate abroad

The Romanian settlement in Jerusalem has been published since 1973

Resurrection, a journal of Romanian theology and culture. Romanian Orthodox Vicar

by Vârset published 1973. the religious magazine Belief and Calendar

Church. After the establishment of Romanian Orthodox dioceses in Hungary i

In Serbia, they publish their own publications and manage websites on the network


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Romanian popular media and religious press


At the beginning of the 21st century the Orthodox Church is definitely pushing

its components (print, radio, television, electronic) bring their

significant contribution to pastoral-missionary, cultural-pedagogical work and

Church social charity.

In a world dominated by the media, the church press

carries out its activity in the general context of our media (in which

(interspersed with various voices from society) and in the context of the development of law

from the press and other sects in Romania.

Therefore, the development of the media of the Orthodox Church should be treated in this way

both in the Pan-Orthodox context, and in the context of dialogue, peaceful coexistence and

Social cooperation with other religions. We will do it in a short presentation

Outline and plan mutual public and media activities

Cults from Romania.

In the Roman Catholic Church, the use of printing in pastoral missions i

Education has an ancient tradition, and is also inspired by the Catholic experience

the West. The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bucharest sponsors the edition

three magazines: Christian Actuality, Pro Memoria and Verbum. They appear in Alba-Iulia

cinci publicaţii diocesene: Sunday, the Christian word, the light of Christ,

Transylvanian Theological Studies, University Studies, few publications

parishes and youth magazines. Lumina Cristianului is published monthly in Iași,

first published in 1913 and quarterly Jesus, friend of children.

To these publications we can add other magazines published by schools

Churches or various associations: Theological dialogue, periodical

Roman Catholic Theological Institute in Iasi, Open Roads, monthly a

Students and pupils of the Roman Catholic Episcopal School in Iaşi, Echoul Mariai,

The Queen of Peace Appears in Bucharest, Herald of St. Anthony, ed

Franciscan Priests from Romania, Thomist Studies: International Thomas Society

d'Aquino, Romanian section in Bucharest, Oras nou, Monthly magazine edited by Mişcare

Focolare in Timisoara, etc. The Romanian Church United with Rome has the following magazines: Christian Life, Unirea, Vestitorul,

Faith awakening, awakening. Diocesan Herald Lugoj, Calea Desăvărşirii, Flori de Crin, etc.

Armenians have as their type the Ararat version in Romania, which contains:

along with Armenian tradition and culture and church information.

The traditional evangelical churches represented in our country are led by a

busy with editorial and publishing activities. Reformed Church publications include;

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appearing in Hungarian are listed here: Református Szemle (Revista

Reformed), Uznet (Message), Igehirdetö (Preacher), Reformierte Familie

(Reformirana obitel), Ertesitö (Obavijest), Harangszó, Partium Köszlöny.

Evangelical Church C.A. publishes monthly Church Heralds and a bimonthly magazine

1991. Landeskirchliche Information magazine. Official body

Press S.P. The Evangelical Lutheran Church, published in Brasov after 1989, see

called Evangelikos Harantzo (Evangelical Bell).

The Unitarian cult publishes a quarterly in Hungarian in Cluj

(Magvetö Keresztény – The Christian Sower) and another that comes out every month:

Bonding paper.

Neo-Protestant sects in Romania use printed media to

communication with their own believers, but also promotion of their activities

and sending people.

Christian Today is the official Baptist worship newsletter and is published monthly

Year 1994. Adventists have a publishing company that publishes it monthly

Adventist Courier Magazine, Semnel's bimonthly magazine of religious culture

Periodicals and quarterly Bible study notebooks.

Pentecostals in Romania have Cuvântul as their official formula

truth. Christian worship according to the gospel has been published by Calea magazine since 1949

Faith and recent Christian echoes. The Romanian Evangelical Church has

Adevărul Creştin magazine, a magazine of spiritual edification that appears here and there

with two months.

Jehovah's Witnesses, the newest officially recognized sect in our country,

He has 40,000 followers here and 6 million worldwide. your main

The magazine is Turnul de Veghe, published in 147 languages ​​and 25 million

Copies issued continuously since 1879. Awake, the Author's Magazine

of biblical and general culture, published in 86 languages ​​and 22 million


Realitatea magazine is published by Mosaic Cult in Romania

evreiàsca (before Revista tulumosaik), with two shows a month. To have a complete picture of the religious media in Romania, we must also add the publications of the religious associations

people who have not acquired the status of a religious sect, various travel documents of an ecumenical nature or with an identity card were recognized with us

unspecified religion.

b) Broadcasting via radio and television

Religious cults appeared in Romania in the last decade of the 20th century

great strides towards the use of audio-visual media (radio and television).

missionary activity. If religion existed until then, in one form or another

on the other hand, in public or private mass media, in which local sects have shown interest

opening of own audiovisual media institutions. First came the announcements

neoprotestantischer Radiosender (Vocea Evangeliei, 1993.; Mali Samaritanac, 1994.;

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Voice of Hope, 1995). Then came the Orthodox (prima radio TRINITAS

(obtained audiovisual license in 1996 and broadcast since April 1998) and Catholics (Radio


At the time of 2007, the sect was innumerable compared to the number of members in the country

Adventists have the strongest presence in the audiovisual field. the radio

Voice of Hope broadcasts through 13 of its own stations and in cooperation with 11 other stations

Local radio with national coverage. The Adventist Media Center also includes

the Speranţa TV satellite TV channel associated with Hope International Trust

Channel. Voice of the Gospel is the radio network of the Romanian Evangelical Alliance and broadcasts on 16 frequencies.

Radio Mikul Samarićanin started working in 1994 in the Republic

Moldova and there he organized a network of 12 stations covering the entire country

but also part of eastern Romania or Ukraine. He is currently working

The Little Samaritan has 26 stations in FM frequency bands all over Romania

I HAVE ONE. The Catholic radio station Radio Maria broadcasts on 4 frequencies in the Romanian language

and Hungarian.

The presence of the Romanian Orthodox Church in the audiovisual space is guaranteed

on radio stations (TRINITAS, Patriarchate of Romania-Bucuresti, 34 de

terrestrial frequencies and 2 satellite frequencies. Lumina Drobeta Turnu Severin,

Renaissance-Cluj-Napoca, two frequencies. Reunion Alba Iulia, 3 frequencies.

Radio Dobrogea-Constanța and Radio Ortodoxia-Braşov.

Trinitas TV started operating with satellite transmission

Bucharest on October 27, 2007 and operates in the center

Type BASILIKI of the Romanian Patriarchate.

We believe that in today's intellectual and cultural context in Europe, the press

Above all, the Orthodox Church plays an important role as a link and network

Communication within our Church, between the Orthodox communities of the country and

those from the diaspora, between different hierarchical levels. Also a means for

The communication of the Romanian Orthodox Church contributes to the community

orthodox and for dialogue with civil society, as well as for initiation i

development of interreligious projects for the promotion of Christian values, a

Respect among people and concern for moral and physical health a

a world in a secularized society and threatened by the dangers of consumerism and

We relate.

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Bianu, I., N. Hodoş, Al. Sadi Ionescu, Rumänische Periodika, Bucharest, 1923

Briggs Asa, Burke Peter, Media. Social history: from Gutenberg to the Internet, Polirom, Iasi, 2005

Chendi, Ilarie, Počeci našeg novaristva, Orăștie, 1900.

† Daniel, Patriarch of Romania, Mission to Redemption. work

Churches in Society, BASILICA Publishing House, Bucharest, 2009

Ghibu, Onisifor, Church Journalism in Romanian. historical study,

Hermannstadt, 1910

Hangiu I., Romanian press from the beginning to the present day.

Chronological dictionary 1790-2007, 4 volumes, Editura,

Bucharest, 2008

Idem, Dictionary of Romanian Literary Press, 1790-1990, ed

Romanian Cultural Foundation, Bucharest, 1996

Iorga, Nicolae, History of Romanian Press. From beginning

to 1916. A look at today's Romanian press

C. Bacalbaşa, President of the Union of Journalists, Bucharest, 1922

Jeanneney, Jean-Noël, History of the Media,

European Institute, Iasi, 1997

Păcurariu, Mircea, History of the Romanian Orthodox Church, 3 volumes,

Trinitas, Iasio, 2004.-2008

Petcu Marian, Typology of Romanian Printing, European Institute, Iasi,

in 2000

Petcu Marian, Structure of the Romanian Press, European Institute, Iasi,

in 2000

Popa, M., Tascu Valentin, History of the Romanian Press from Transylvania,

Tritonic, Bucharest, 2003

Popescu, Cristian Florin, Explanatory Dictionary of Journalism, Public Relations and Advertising, Tritonic, Bucharest, 2002.

Răduica, G., Răduica, N., Dictionary of Romanian Printing (1731-1918),

Bucharest, 1995

Vișinescu V, History of Romanian Press, Hyperion, Bucharest, 2000.

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ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ROMANIAN ORTHODOX, Publishing House of the Institute

Biblical and Orthodox Mission, Bucharest, 2010

Collection of magazines of the Romanian Orthodox Church.

"Telegraful Român" newspaper collection.

Collection of the Orthodox magazine Glasnik

Collection "Ziarul Lumina", "Sunday Light".

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