Chart a path for Vietnam to achieve its net zero goals (2023)

(12 pages)

Vietnam is more exposedto climate risk than almost any other country in the world. According to some estimates, it is among the five countries most likely to be affected by climate change.1 “Country: Vietnam”, World Bank Group Climate Change Knowledge Portal, 2021.Without adaptation and containment measures, the country could face serious social and economic consequences.

About the authors

This article is a joint workVishal Agarwal, Jonathan Defarge,Bruce Deldale,Matthew Francoisand Kunal Tara, who share insights from McKinsey's sustainability practice.

Stakeholders across the country understand this reality and have begun to make promises and announce measures to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. At the 2021 UN Climate Change Conference in Glasgow (COP26), Prime Minister Pham Minh Chinh announced the country's commitment to phase out coal-fired electricity generation by the 2040s and achieve net zero carbon emissions by 2050 as part of climate change, Vietnam announced a 43.5% emissions reduction target by 2030, sectoral emission targets for 2030 and 2050 and qualitative proposals to achieve these targets.2 "No. decision: 896/QD-TTg', National Strategy for Climate Change, 26 July 2022.

While these are laudable goals, they alone are unlikely to lead Vietnam to net zero emissions by 2050. Accomplishing this mission requires more detailed and specific actions. To outline a possible scenario for Vietnam to meet its climate goals, we conducted a bottom-up analysis of the country's key economic sectors and required emissions growth. Carefully targeted and aggressive action to reduce emissions in all sectors of the economy, especially in the energy sector, could put Vietnam on a path to potentially achieving net zero emissions by 2050.

This transition will not be easy. Vietnam faces structural challenges and the transition will require significant investment – ​​as well as significant changes in the way we think and do business. However, by building on existing efforts and cross-sector commitment, Vietnam could meet its commitments and help keep global warming below baselines.

Such actions would also improve health outcomes, provide access to new sustainable capital of value and boost GDP.

(Video) Charting a Path for Vietnam to Achieve Its Net-zero Goals

Net zero supply and progress so far

Vietnam faces a double threat. First, there are the natural hazards of climate change that could have a huge impact on Vietnam's urban areas.Previous McKinsey researchsuggests that the flood depth in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC)—the country's largest city and major commercial and financial center—could triple by 2050, and a 100-year flood could affect 36 percent of the city.3 "Can Coastal Cities Turn the Tide Amid Rising Flood Risk?" McKinsey Global Institute, 20 April 2020.The associated damages and losses could cost between $15 billion and $20 billion. A scenario where sea levels rise by 1.8 meters could submerge 66 percent of HCMC, potentially causing power outages and road and transportation closures.

Second, Vietnam's GDP is at risk due to transition adjustments.4 “How the transition to Net Zero will affect countries and regions”, McKinsey, 25 January 2022.Vietnam derives much of its GDP from carbon-intensive sectors and much of its capital is tied to fossil fuel energy. Vietnam is already struggling to find financing for proposed coal-fired power plants.5Luu Huong, "Influential institutions want to end coal activities", Vietnam Investment Review, 18 August 2021.

Therefore, reducing emissions is crucial for Vietnam to mitigate natural and economic risk. And this requires significant changes. Vietnam's emissions could almost quadruple by 2050 if the country's industry continues to grow at its planned pace without technological changes, changes in the industrial base and successful implementation of policy changes (Figure 1).6 "Vietnam", CAIT 2018 data, Climate Watch; McKinsey model of carbonization scenarios, Vietnam..


Chart a path for Vietnam to achieve its net zero goals (1)

Vietnam's policy goals are in line with those of many of its partners in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), which are also committed to net zero emissions. As in other countries, emissions in Vietnam come from a range of energy and land use systems. About 30 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions come from the energy sector, another 30 percent from industry and about 10 percent from traffic.

Several agencies within the Vietnamese government have described specific CO2 attacks2reduction policy. For example, the Ministry of Industry and Trade's Power Development Plan 8 (PDP8) plans to convert about 75 percent of generation capacity to renewable energy sources by 2045. Of this, about 100 gigawatts (GW) of solar power and about 120 GW of wind power will be electricity (even higher solar targets are being discussed). The ministry also announced the use of hydrogen and ammonia in heat generation projects, paving the way for green hydrogen to partially replace fossil fuels.

In the transport sector, the Prime Minister promoted the introduction of electric vehicles (EVs), EV charging infrastructure and the electrification of public transport. The public bodies have taken the appropriate measures. The National Ministry of Finance has reduced the registration fees for electric vehicles. Hanoi, HCMC and Da Nang have subway projects underway that could reduce the share of passengers in private vehicles. Hanoi and other cities have also discussed banning two- and three-wheeled vehicles with internal combustion engines (ICEs) and have already opened some neighborhoods to pedestrians on certain days. The Department of Transport is also planning a high-speed train that could reduce the number of domestic flights.

Other government agencies have also made commitments. The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development has pledged to end deforestation by 2030.7 “Facts and figures on Vietnam's forests”, UN-REDD, 20 July 2009.and the Department of Construction established requirements that encourage green buildings.8 "Green Building Rules", Vietnam Green Building Council, published on September 13, 2022.

Apart from central government agencies, some provinces have also prioritized decarbonisation. Coastal provinces have set ambitious renewable energy targets in the latest PDP8 draft. Others are specifically moving away from high-emission industries to lower-emission, higher-value sectors. Quang Nam province has launched carbon sink projects in Vietnam to protect its forests in partnership with the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF).9 «Start des Annamites Carbon Sinks and Biodiversity Project – Quang Nam Component», World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), 11 Αυγούστου 2011.

If the government can successfully implement these measures, it is possible to reduce emissions -- but not to the extent necessary to achieve net zero emissions by 2050. Figure 2 illustrates this gap using three scenarios. The worst possible scenario is the scenario described above in which industries continue to grow at the planned rate without technological change and without successful implementation of the planned measures. The middle scenario in the graph shows the successful implementation of the planned policy updates. At best, when the latest plans are combined with economically viable technological changes—such as the introduction of electric propulsion for passenger cars, two-wheelers and three-wheelers, improved agricultural efficiency, and a shift toward advanced manufacturing—the emissions curve falls even further. Under this scenario, Vietnam's emissions could be reduced around 2035. By 2050, emissions would be about 0.6 gigatonnes, about the same as in 2025.


Chart a path for Vietnam to achieve its net zero goals (2)
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However, even in this best-case scenario, the country will only achieve about half of net-zero emissions. What should Vietnam do to close the gap? In the next section, we describe the method.

Achieving Net Zero Emissions in Vietnam

We performed detailed modeling of Vietnam's cross-sectoral emissions and several hundred specific decarbonization drivers (and their costs) to estimate what would be needed to close the gap (see "Our Methodology" sidebar). We have divided the sources of greenhouse gases into seven sectors: agriculture, construction, industry, energy, transport, waste management and land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF). The combined effort of all seven sectors could reduce emissions to net zero by 2050 (Figure 3).


Chart a path for Vietnam to achieve its net zero goals (3)

Our methodology

Vietnam has a lot of themPossible Pathways to Net Zero Emissions to 2050 This report describes a specific pathway that is generally feasible from a technology and supply chain perspective based on current perspectives.

To get to this journey, we used our own optimization models and data from our Sustainability Insights Decarbonization Scenario Explorer solution to evaluate several hundred business cases with decarbonization drivers across 42 subsectors and hundreds of individual activities. In making this optimization, we considered national and regional constraints such as (but not limited to) technical caps for wind and solar power generation, the maximum potential of pumped hydro storage, consumer willingness to switch to alternative transportation, and available land for reforestation. As Vietnam recently released a new draft of the Power Development Plan 8 (PDP8), we paid special attention to the energy sector.

We did not consider the value of the non-monetary benefits of reducing emissions, such as B. reducing air pollution, improving human health, and reducing natural hazards from climate change. These benefits are significant for Vietnam and could be worth billions of dollars in improved social outcomes.

We did not constrain economic growth or consumption and assumed that production facilities would not relocate.

The result is not a forecast, but a path showing how national ministries, provinces and corporate stakeholders could work together across the board to reduce Vietnam's total emissions by 100 percent by 2050.

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Finally, we do not consider the specific challenges that the transition to zero emissions poses for individual companies. They can be important. And while we explore some of the possible actions that key actors in Vietnam can take to manage and shape the transition, it is beyond the scope of our research to provide a detailed perspective on how actors in each sector are managing the transition.

In this article, we focus in detail on three key sectors: energy, industry and transport.


Energy supply represents a significant opportunity for net zero emissions in the country. Given the vital importance of national electrification in some other sectors, it is also key to achieving these goals. In terms of the extent of its natural potential for renewable energy production, Vietnam is unique among its ASEAN peers.

In the net zero scenario, the demand for electricity will increase significantly as other sectors electrify – for example, by switching from internal combustion engine vehicles to electric vehicles. The country needs to invest in providing infrastructure - such as transmission and distribution networks and utility storage - to integrate renewables into the grid, bridge short-term supply gaps and bridge distances between power plant locations and demand centres.

Among sectors, the energy sector is best placed to move forward with decarbonisation immediately. This is due to the ambitious targets in the government's PDP8, the technical maturity of key renewable energy technologies and the interest of renewable energy investors in Vietnam. The government's net zero emissions strategy emphasizes energy and even mentions nuclear power - a major change for the country.10 "No. decision: 896/QD-TTg", 26 July 2022.To reach net zero emissions, Vietnam will need to convert most of its electricity generation capacity to wind and solar, installing about 150 GW of wind capacity, mostly offshore, and about 70 GW of solar capacity by 2050. The country will it must also convert most of its remaining resources to hydropower and phase out coal after 2030 (Figure 4). We report installed capacity not only for generation, but also for storage, reflecting the global trend for long-term energy storage, which is estimated to reach 2.5 terawatts (TW) globally by 2040.11 «Net-Zero Electricity: Long-Term Energy Storage for an Renewable Grid», McKinsey, 22 Νοεμβρίου 2021.


Chart a path for Vietnam to achieve its net zero goals (4)

When modeling this scenario, we took into account significant peak demand and the season (currently June and July midday and evening). Therefore, the pathway requires Vietnam to maintain significant storage capacity for peak demand, as well as a small amount of heat generation (about 10 percent), while incorporating carbon capture, use and storage (CCUS) technology. With the further development of long-term energy storage, the country could move away from heat production entirely.

This route sets ambitious renewable energy targets, but covers only a fraction of Vietnam's total renewable energy potential. For example, while about 150 GW of wind power needs to be installed, the technical wind potential in Vietnam is four to five times higher (Figure 5). Likewise, the track's solar target is less than one-fifth of Vietnam's economic solar potential. By exploiting its natural advantages and installing more wind and solar power than needed for net zero targets, Vietnam could become a net exporter of renewable electrons (e.g. to Singapore) and a green hydrogen hub. This would meet domestic needs for hydrogen gas and ammonia for co-firing, as well as hydrogen for the production of green metals, and supply fast-growing export markets such as Korea and Japan.


Chart a path for Vietnam to achieve its net zero goals (5)

Provinces are already competing to attract offshore wind projects. For example, Binh Thuan proposed more than 22 GW of offshore wind projects in the PDP8 submission. Ninh Binh and Quang Ninh provinces have proposed more than 21 GW and more than 5 GW respectively (combined onshore and offshore wind power).

Renewable energy is also the most efficient source to meet Vietnam's growing electricity demand. LCOE projections for the country show that solar and onshore wind are already cheaper than all thermal energy sources today, and offshore wind will be cheaper than natural gas around 2030. These LCOE projections do not include the cost of carbon. If the CO2 tax, which is currently under discussion, is introduced, renewable energy sources would be even more competitive and would displace thermal energy production. Vietnam's green hydrogen production could become competitive with the world's low-cost producers.

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While the energy sector will be key to Vietnam's ability to achieve net zero emissions, industry, as a major emitter of greenhouse gases, also has an important contribution to make. Vietnam needs to reduce the GDP contribution of low-value primary production and move up the value chain to high-value, electrified and low-carbon sectors.

An example of this is the Vietnamese steel industry. Under the net zero path, the sector should stagnate in growth until the late 2030s as the country shifts to higher-value manufacturing. Any additional new generation capacity will use Direct Reduction Iron and Electric Arc (DRI-EAF) technology that uses green hydrogen and electricity from renewable sources. By 2050, Vietnam is expected to produce more than 99 percent of its steel using DRI-EAF technology. Steel mills around the world are switching to DRI-EAF and have already planned 16 million tons of green steel production capacity by 2030. Some provinces in Vietnam are already pioneers in green metals: Dak Nong, for example, is considering introducing green production aluminum, including renewable energy sources.12 “Environmental Protection – Green Development”, Vietnam Business Forum, 30 March 2020.

Road transport

Road transport is also set to undergo significant changes, such as a shift towards bicycles, public transport and electric vehicles (including fuel cell electric vehicles). This trend is already underway in Vietnam. Net zero emissions would require changes in particular in the way we travel and work. For example, by 2050, 40 percent of trips within HCMC and Hanoi should be made by metro or bicycle, with increases in telecommuting reducing daily commutes in these cities by 6 percent. From 2032 to 2035, electric motorcycles and scooters should make up the majority of two-wheelers and reach a market penetration of more than 99 percent by 2050. Rail transport, including high-speed trains, will begin to they replace airplanes and buses between major cities in Vietnam. To follow the Zero Road, Vietnam must introduce high-speed trains by 2040. Then, high-speed rail must quickly reach 20 percent of domestic air passengers, rising to 30 percent by 2050.

Achieving ambitious decarbonisation targets will be challenging and will require investment

Some of the steps needed to achieve net zero emissions along this path would be difficult, but the experiences of other countries show that they can be done.

Certain features of Vietnam's geography and society will make decarbonization particularly challenging. For example, the long distance between Hanoi and HCMC - about 1,600 kilometers - makes it expensive to introduce a high-speed line. Uzbekistan, on the other hand, has successfully implemented nearly 750 kilometers of high-speed rail and is planning another 500 kilometers with the financial support of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank.13 “Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank Grants USD 108 Million Loan to Uzbekistan for Railway Electrification”, AKIpress, 1 April 2022.Vietnam's large geographic location poses challenges for grid infrastructure, and its underdeveloped grid limits the integration and expansion of renewable energy generation. Chile, a similarly elongated country, has made efforts to attract foreign companies to invest in Chile's transition to a decentralized grid to support the transition to renewable energy.14InvestChile Blog, «Energy: Where are the Investment Opportunities in Chile;», 24 Μαΐου 2021.

To follow the zero network path, Vietnam must introduce high-speed rail by 2040.

Capital projects in Vietnam have been behind schedule at times, but the development of the public transport system should keep pace with the necessary efforts to decarbonize the transport sector. It can be done: the first 350 kilometers of Uzbekistan's high-speed railway were put into operation in five months.15 “Uzbekistan's high-speed railways link past to future”, Emerging Europe, 2 September 2021.and a high-speed metro line in Gurugram, India was commissioned in two and a half years.16 “India's first high-speed metro to start operations in Gurgaon”, Business Today, 14 November 2013.The prevalence of two-wheeled vehicles with internal combustion engines in Vietnam makes switching to public transport, walking or cycling difficult, but other cities have shown that this is also possible. For example, Mexico City and Guadalajara (cities with rainy seasons and hot summer temperatures) have established bike sharing programs as an important part of their transportation mix.17Arturo Balderas Torres et al., Sustainable Mobility for Sustainable Cities: Lessons from Cycling Programs in Mexico City and Guadalajara, Mexico, Urban Transitions Coalition and University of Leeds, 2021.

The investments required for these steps are an important piece of the puzzle. Our initial estimate assumes that between 80 and 90 percent of Vietnam's emissions across all sectors can be avoided at a cost of $24 per tonne of CO2equal or lower. Many of these bars are cheap. In fact, less than a quarter of the time, the cost of introducing a viable alternative is negative—that is, cheaper than maintaining the status quo.

For example, new-build wind, solar and hydro plants are competitively priced over their lifetime with new thermal plants because they have lower operating costs and will require lower capital costs in the future. And road transport electrification is more profitable than supporting ICE transport due to the significantly lower operating costs for electric vehicles and the expected parity of the total cost of ownership for electric and ICE vehicles.

However, achieving net-zero emissions in Vietnam will require significant public and private spending: a rough estimate, based on net-zero trajectory modeling, puts the total investment at around US$30 billion per year. Some projects are particularly expensive: Vietnam's high-speed projects are estimated to cost more than $55 billion.18 T. You: "There will be a 300km/h high-speed line from Hanoi to Ho Chi Minh City", Bao Dat Viet, 30 December 2019.However, this does not take into account the positive externalities of these changes, such as B. Improved public health outcomes, greater economic activity, and access to new sources of value creation.

Take advantage of the net zero opportunity across the board

Achieving net zero emissions offers significant opportunities for government, businesses and residents in the short and long term. Further socio-economic models would better assess the social impact of the transition, but residents would undoubtedly see a significant improvement in health outcomes due to lower emissions, particularly in heavily polluted cities like Hanoi. They will also benefit from reduced natural risk from climate change. And improved mass transit could reduce social isolation and increase equality by making employment and services more accessible.19 “The benefits of public transport”, Tourism & Transport Forum Australia, May 2010.

The public and private sectors play an important role in realizing these and many other opportunities that a successful transition promises.

In the public sector, the Vietnamese government could consider providing structured governance, regulatory support and funding to accelerate demand for climate-friendly technologies in key industries. For example, the government could ensure speedy commissioning of proposed projects and update offshore wind regulations to ensure project profitability, clear allocation of space and transparency in future auction plans. Given PDP8's ambitions for installed offshore wind capacity by 2030 and six- to eight-year development timelines, offshore wind projects should start now – and this can only happen with regulatory guidance and support.As mentioned in the previous report, the government could set rules and guidelines for participants in the green bond market.20Sarika Chandhok, Jonathan Deffarges, Bruce Delteil, and An Nguyen, "Can Vietnamese Banks Seize the Green Bond Opportunity?" McKinsey, 3 August 2022.

Financing the energy transition would mean a revenue opportunity of US$1.5 billion for Vietnamese banks by 2025 from the issuance of transition financial products.

Enacting the much-debated CO2 tax could help Vietnam decarbonise, raise revenue and thus finance its climate goals. The carbon tax will also help stimulate low-carbon industries aimed at developing pools of value, while discouraging investment in high-emission industries that will be phased out. This would pave the way for the introduction of an emissions trading system in Vietnam.

More broadly, a national climate change council could provide funding and support to industries and technologies that need a boost to establish a base in Vietnam. In addition, a green technology fund investing in specific climate technologies to be transferred to Vietnam could provide positive returns and reduced emissions. By supporting climate-friendly technologies, Vietnam could help its industrial base acquire new value-added capital worth between $9-12 trillion by 2030, boosting the country's GDP.21 «Play Offense to Add Value in Net Zero Transition», McKinsey Quarterly, 13. travnja 2022.

The private sector can also access significant pools of value by making strategic bets now on key decarbonization trends, including:

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  • Renewable energy.Vietnamese construction and real estate operators can use their expertise to develop large local capital projects to build renewable energy facilities. For example, Fecon, a local construction company, has partnered with Corio Generation, an offshore wind portfolio company of Macquarie Green Investment Group, to develop offshore wind farms.22Adnan Duraković, "Corio and Fecon build a wind farm together on the coast of Vietnam",, 22 June 2022.Local oil and gas companies could turn to renewable energy development, as many foreign players have done -- Equinor, for example, recently partnered with PetroVietnam to develop renewable energy. In the future, a large renewable resource base could position Vietnam to take a leading role in the growing green hydrogen economy and act as a net exporter of green electrons. This is a time sensitive activity. Developers are already competing for the most affordable locations.
  • Green steel.There is significant commercial demand for green steel across all industries and many leading steel producers have opened green steel plants. The change allows Vietnamese companies to avoid relying on high-emission production facilities as regulations and falling demand choke dirty steel markets.
  • Transport.Vietnamese transportation companies could follow the early pioneers—from big players like VinFast to startups like Dat Bike—to participate in the EV value chain, from batteries to charging infrastructure.
  • financing.Financing the energy transition would mean a revenue opportunity of US$1.5 billion for Vietnamese banks by 2025 from the issuance of transition financial products.23 “Can Vietnam's banks seize the green bond opportunity?”, 3 August 2022.Financing is best available from banks that know the local market. Opportunities for public-private partnerships exist in all sectors, especially for infrastructure projects of major benefit to cities.

Although Vietnam has committed to achieving net zero carbon emissions by 2050 and has set industry-level targets as part of this goal, the country is not yet on track to achieve this goal. Current efforts make sense, but Vietnam lacks a detailed decarbonization strategy. However, there is a way. By seizing opportunities across the economy - particularly in the energy sector - and aligning across sectors to unlock new sources of value, Vietnam can deliver on its promise, increase GDP and improve the lives of its people.

Download the article in Vietnamese.


What is Vietnam net zero strategy? ›

The strategy states that Viet Nam will not develop new coal-fired power plants after 2030, and it will gradually reduce its coal fleet after 2035. Clarity on fairness of target – Viet Nam provides no information on its intention to explain the target's fairness.

What is the pathway to net zero emissions? ›

Net Zero emissions are achieved when there is balance between greenhouse gases produced and those removed from the atmosphere. To achieve it, we must dramatically change the way we produce energy, how we farm and how we travel, while also drawing down carbon from the atmosphere.

How do you achieve net zero goals? ›

Net-zero emissions, or “net zero,” will be achieved when all emissions released by human activities are counterbalanced by removing carbon from the atmosphere in a process known as carbon removal.

What is the pathway to 2050 net zero? ›

To keep global warming to no more than 1.5°C – as called for in the Paris Agreement – emissions need to be reduced by 45% by 2030 and reach net zero by 2050.

What strategy did the Vietnamese use? ›

The Viet Cong mainly used guerrilla tactics to fight in the South. This is because the US had more advanced weapons, resources and equipment to beat the Vietcong and the North Vietnamese Army (the NVA) in a pinched fight or in open warfare.

What is Vietnam doing to reduce carbon emissions? ›

Draft Eighth Power Development Plan

To achieve this share Vietnam will need 42.7 GW of onshore wind, 54 GW of offshore wind and 54.8 GW of solar power by 2045 (Energy Tracker Asia, 2022b). The plan also aims to limit the country's reliance on fossil fuels and avoid adding any new coal-fired power plants.

What are examples of net zero emissions? ›

Buildings achieve net zero emissions by abandoning power sourced from fossil fuels and by using clean energy, sourced from renewables such as solar and wind. In many cases, this power is generated onsite. Passive building design. Net-zero buildings use as little energy as possible by using passive building design.

What is the climate action pathway for net zero cooling? ›

Our vision is that by 2050, there will be net-zero cooling for all through a focus on three impact areas: Passive cooling: Widespread adoption of measures that avoid or reduce the need for mechanical cooling including reducing cooling loads, smart and human centric design and urban planning.

What is net zero carbon roadmap? ›

A Net Zero Roadmap identifies the key programmes of work needed for your business to achieve net zero. Within each programme it identifies the key projects that will be needed and the time period over which they will be run.

How do I create a net zero roadmap? ›

How to develop a net-zero plan
  1. Reducing energy demand. ...
  2. Making the most of bioresources. ...
  3. Making the most of renewables. ...
  4. How to handle unavoidable emissions (carbon sequestration and offsets)
May 25, 2021

How do I create a net zero plan? ›

Checklist for building your net zero plan
  1. Calculate your carbon footprint. ...
  2. Build top-level commitment. ...
  3. Develop a clear plan. ...
  4. Communicate your net zero ambitions. ...
  5. Get staff involved. ...
  6. Identify your carbon hotspots. ...
  7. Think about the impacts of your products. ...
  8. Look for opportunities to collaborate.

What is the net zero strategy summary? ›

The 'net zero target' refers to a government commitment to ensure the UK reduces its greenhouse gas emissions by 100% from 1990 levels by 2050. If met, this would mean the amount of greenhouse gas emissions produced by the UK would be equal to or less than the emissions removed by the UK from the environment.

How to achieve net zero by 2070? ›

The overall climate finance requirement by 2050 to achieve net zero emissions by 2070 will be in the order of tens of billions of dollars and around ₹85.6 trillion by 2030 for India's adaptation needs, the document that runs into over 100 pages said.

Why net zero by 2050 is too late? ›

The group of world-renowned climate experts explain how, even if countries hit net zero by 2050, CO2 concentrations already in the atmosphere will leave “little to no room for manoeuvre”, and that there is only a 50% chance of holding global temperatures at 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels.

What do we need to do to be net zero by 2030? ›

This is how we're reaching Net Zero by 2030:
  1. We've committed to a 50% absolute reduction of our scope 1 and 2 greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) across our network. ...
  2. We'll switch to 100% renewable electricity in all territories by FY30. ...
  3. We want to work with suppliers who have the same climate ambition as us.

What are the 4 major strategies of the Vietnam War? ›

American tactics in Vietnam can be summed up by the acronym BEAST - Bombing, Escalation, Air and artillery, Search and destroy and Technology.

What was the best Vietnam War strategy? ›

The U.S. would wage a war of attrition, a military tactic through which a long series of small-scale attacks gradually wears down the enemy. The goal was to inflict heavy damage on North Vietnam and the Viet Cong, so much damage in fact, that it would be impossible for them to recover and keep fighting.

What strategies did the Vietnamese use during the Vietnam War? ›

They would ambush an American or South Vietnamese patrol, and kill or capture men in the unit, if captured the enemy was tortured before being killed. They would set booby traps or plant bombs on known routes of enemy patrols. Having done their work the Vietcong would then dissappear into their villages.

What is Vietnam doing to help climate change? ›

Vietnam announced at the 2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP26) a target of net zero carbon emissions (GHG) by 2050. To align with this target, Vietnam is reviewing its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), a climate action plan to cut emissions and adapt to climate impacts.

What is Vietnam doing to help the environment? ›

Until 2021, Vietnam has centralized only fifteen percent of its wastewater treatment system. The Government is encouraging privatizing the sector and prioritizing water collection, drainage, and wastewater treatment.

How is Vietnam tackling climate change? ›

In 2020, Vietnam introduced legislation to advance its greenhouse gas reduction goals as per the Paris Agreement. The legislation included a draft Law on Environmental Protection in addition to a lower-level decree from the Environment Ministry.

What is net zero for dummies? ›

Put simply, net zero refers to the balance between the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) that's produced and the amount that's removed from the atmosphere. It can be achieved through a combination of emission reduction and emission removal.

What are three things that can be done to reach net zero emissions? ›

What technologies are needed to achieve this goal?
  • Generate electricity without emissions. ...
  • Use vehicles and equipment that are powered by electricity instead of fossil fuels. ...
  • Use energy more efficiently. ...
  • Remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Oct 27, 2021

What are net zero targets? ›

Net zero refers to achieving a balance between the amount of greenhouse gas emissions produced and the amount removed from the atmosphere.

What are 4 basic and cooling processes in the atmosphere? ›

The process of heating and cooling of the atmosphere takes place in four stages and these stages are radiation, conduction, convection, and advection.

How can we reduce 80 of emissions by 2050? ›

A combination of technical, agricultural and policy interventions in both areas, however, could reduce emissions by as much as 80 percent by 2050, the study found. Researchers say increasing the efficiency of fertilizer use is the single most effective strategy to reduce emissions.

What is the difference between climate positive and net-zero? ›

Climate positive means that activity goes beyond achieving net-zero carbon emissions to create an environmental benefit by removing additional carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Carbon negative means the same thing as “climate positive.”

What is roadmap to Beyond net zero? ›

The 'Roadmap to Beyond Net Zero' calculates the potential of each technology and the carbon savings which can be achieved. Delivering beyond net zero requires our industry, all levels of Government and the wider construction, energy and transportation sectors to work together.

What is the strategy for net zero carbon? ›

Getting to net zero means removing as many emissions as we produce, which is vital if we're to get a grip on climate breakdown. That includes polluting less and holding big fossil fuel companies to account, as well as re-thinking how we use our land and natural resources.

What is a net zero project? ›

Net Zero is all about conserving water, reducing energy use, and eliminating solid waste to improve the environment, save money, and help communities become more sustainable and resilient.

What are the top 3 projects you would initiate towards becoming a net zero building? ›

There are three principles to achieve a good net-zero energy building design:
  • Building envelope measures. Not only the building should be oriented to minimize HVAC loads, but shades and overhangs should be used to reduce the direct sunrays. ...
  • Energy efficiency measures. ...
  • Renewable energy measures.

What is net zero solutions? ›

Countries, cities and companies are increasingly committing to reach Net Zero – removing as much CO2 as they produce – by 2050. Reaching net-zero means getting a balance between the amount of greenhouse gas produced and the amount removed from the atmosphere.

Which country has achieved net zero? ›

Guyana. Guyana is another tree-canopy-rich country, which sits on the northern coast of South America surrounded by Amazon rainforest. Having already achieved net zero emissions, the country is aiming for a further 70% cut in emissions by 2030.

Will the US be net zero by 2050? ›

The U.S. Government is now joined by 18 national governments committed to attaining net-zero government emissions by 2050. Through this Initiative, national governments will work together to steadily curb emissions in ways that meet the urgency of the climate crisis.”

How long would it take for US to get to net 0? ›

The Long-Term Strategy shows that reaching net- zero no later than 2050 will require actions spanning every sector of the economy. There are many potential pathways to get there, and all path-ways start with delivering on our 2030 Nationally Determined Contribution.

How many countries are going to net zero 2050? ›

By 2020 more than 110 countries committed to a net zero emissions target by 2050, and China, the largest emitter by 2060.

What is the biggest challenge to net zero? ›

Lack of data. Businesses must be able to gather their emissions data to take meaningful action towards achieving their net zero targets. Many businesses do not own the building that they operate from and therefore it is not always possible to install meters to measure energy usage.

What is the national strategy for environmental protection Vietnam? ›

After 2025, Vietnam will abandon the circulation and consumption of single-use plastic products and non-biodegradable plastic packaging. In addition, from 2030, Vietnam will stop manufacturing and importing goods containing microplastic and promote the development of environmentally friendly materials.

What is Vietnam's strategy on climate change? ›

Vietnam announced at the 2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP26) a target of net zero carbon emissions (GHG) by 2050.

What is the green growth strategy in Vietnam? ›

Green growth is a means to achieve a low carbon economy and to enrich Vietnam's natural capital through sustainable development. It notes that GHG emissions and removals are gradually becoming essential indicators in social-economic development, and attempts to normalise this within Vietnam's development framework.

What is Vietnam renewable energy development strategy? ›

According to the Strategy Vietnam will promote onshore wind power until 2030 and assess offshore wind resources potential as an electricity solution post 2030. Vietnam targets a strong reduction in coal and oil imports to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 5% by 2020, 25% by 2030 and 45% by 2050.

What are 3 environmental issues in Vietnam? ›

The following eight problems deserve special attention; 1) deforestation, 2) decrease of agricultural land resources, 3) irrational use of water resources, 4) over exploitation of fishery resources, 5) irrational use of mineral resources, 6) loss of genetic resources, 7) environmental pollution, 8) environmental damage ...

What is Vietnam's biodiversity Action Plan? ›

By 2030, 25% of degraded ecosystems of international significance will be restored, and biodiversity will be conserved and used sustainably, bringing major benefits to the people and contributing significantly to the socio-economic development of the country.

What is the most successful agreement to combat environmental problem? ›

The Paris Agreement is a landmark in the multilateral climate change process because, for the first time, a binding agreement brings all nations together to combat climate change and adapt to its effects.

What are Vietnam's energy goals? ›

By 2030, Vietnam aims to draw a minimum of 30.9% of its energy from renewable sources, increasing to 67.5% by 2050. Offshore wind, from which Vietnam generated no power in 2020, should give the country 15GW by 2035, accounting for around 18.5% of the total power mix.

What are Vietnam's development goals? ›

Vietnam has grown bolder in its development aspirations, aiming to become a high-income country by 2045. To achieve this goal, the economy would have to grow at an annual average rate of 5.9% per capita for the next 25 years.

What is the most important natural resource in Vietnam? ›

Vietnam's key mineral endowment includes: coal, bauxite, rare earth, tungsten, titanium, phosphate rocks and iron ore. Coal remains one of the primary energy sources for the domestic market.

What are the main goals of green movements? ›

The simple goal of Greenism is to raise awareness about the importance of environmental conservation.

Why is Vietnam a fast growing economy? ›

Vietnam is one of the fastest–growing economies in the world. The country's economic boom is attributed to the shift in labour allocation from agriculture to the manufacturing and services sector. Vietnam also received a boost from private investment, strong tourism, higher wages, and increased urbanisation.

How did Vietnam improve its economy? ›

The Doi Moi Reforms

Under these reforms, Vietnam as a country took three significant steps as a country that would help improve the economy. The first of these steps was embracing free trade. For many years, Vietnam has entered into various free trade agreements with numerous nations.

What is Vietnam National Energy Efficiency plan? ›

VNEEP 3 expects to save 8-10% of national energy consumption, and a 6.0% power loss reduction through 2030. Points laid out through 2025 to meet these goals: 1. Reducing power loss to below 6.5%; reducing the average energy consumption rate in industrial sectors.

How much of Vietnam energy is renewable? ›

Vietnam's total power capacity was 69GW in 2020, with renewable energy accounting for 17GW, or 25.3% of the energy mix, according to the Vietnam Power Group (EVN).


1. How Vietnamese companies can succeed in the ecosystem world
(McKinsey & Company)
2. The Cartography of Post-COVID-19 Green Growth | Green Horizon Summit 2020
(World Economic Forum)
3. [PODCAST] 𝐈𝐧𝐚𝐮𝐠𝐮𝐫𝐚𝐥 𝟐𝟎𝟐𝟑 𝐏𝐚𝐧𝐞𝐥 𝐃𝐢𝐬𝐜𝐮𝐬𝐬𝐢𝐨𝐧: ‘𝐈𝐎𝐈’𝐬 𝐏𝐚𝐭𝐡𝐰𝐚𝐲 𝐭𝐨 𝐍𝐞𝐭-𝐙𝐞𝐫𝐨’
(IOI Corporation Berhad)
4. The Sir Roger Gifford Lecture, given by Mark Carney
(The Global City)
5. Net zero emissions by 2050? | Tom Switzer | Rupert Darwall | Erwin Jackson
(Centre for Independent Studies)
6. Towards a Sustainable and Net-Zero Future : Carbon Pricing by Environmental Resources Management
(Bursa Malaysia)


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